Production of Sidewalks and Stability of Identity and Sense of Place of Citizens Case study: Imam Khomeini Street Sidewalk in Zanjan

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, Farhangian University, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor of Social Sciences, Farhangian University, Tehran, Iran


Extended Abstract
Urban sidewalks, which date back to about 70 years ago, especially in Germany and the Netherlands, serve as a linear space with maximum social role. According to Jacobber, urban streets and sidewalks are the main and most important part of urban public places and are the most sifnificant part of it. The stability and dynamism of the urban sidewalks space is so effective that leads to the creation of suitable nodes for pausing, sitting and watching. According to Leiden, pedestrianism, pedestrian movement, desirable design, and creating appropriate opportunities for pedestrian movement are effective on increasing social interactions and strengthening social capital. Safety and security, accessibility and permeability, vitality, identity, diversity and mixing,attractiveness, beauty and visual fit, readability,comfort and convenience, shortness and continuity are among the indicators that affect the urban sidewalk.
The research method in the present study is of explanatory-analytical type with applied nature. The method of data collection is library, documentary and field. In order to formulate theoretical foundations, research indicators, library studies were used in the form of books, articles, dissertations and researches.In order to obtain the information of the study area, the field method with the framework of observation and questionnaire has been used. One-sample t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient and stepwise multivariate regression were used to analyze the data.
Results and discussion
The findings show:
•Indicators of cultural diversity, place attachment, safety and security, sense of remembrance and spatial vitality of Zanjan Imam sidewalk are higher than average and close to the desired level. So that the average of the total indicators is about 3.9, which is higher than the standard set (3) and close to the desired limit (4).
•Evaluated indicators on the sidewalk of Zanjan city have a significant relationship and a positive correlation with each other and work continuously with each other.
•According to the results of Pearson test, the indicators of measuring identity and sense of place in the sidewalk of Zanjan city affect each other at 99 and 95% confidence levels. Indicators in general have moderate and positive correlations with each other.
•Based on the results of stepwise multivariate regression test, five indicators of the sidewalk of Imam Street of Zanjan affect each other and each of them has a different effect on the dependent variable of identity and sense of place.
•The share and effect of each variable on the dependent variable (identity and sense of place) are similar based on the non-standardized coefficient (20%). But based on the standardized coefficient (direct and real) are different from each other and each of the five variables has a different effect on the dependent variable of identity and sense of place.
•The effect of place attachment and cultural identity variables on the identity and sense of place of Zanjan sidewalk are greater.
•The five indicators of identity and sense of belonging due to their high average coefficient, communication and impact have been able to have a stimulating effect on the sidewalk and increase the sense of being in space and belonging to it on the sidewalk of Zanjan.
•The high average of the studied indicators shows that the sidewalk of Zanjan city with its increasing performance has been able to be effective on attracting citizens to itself and to mobilize the physical space of the city center.
•According to the average number of visits of citizens (4.5 times a week) and the reasons for attending the sidewalk (58% of traffic and shopping) as well as the amount of pauses and stops on the sidewalk (average 46 minutes) texture and physical space of the center, it has strengthened the city and promoted the sense of identity and place belonging of Zanjan city center.
The results of the study showed that the effect of the studied indicators of sidewalks on Zanjan is qualitatively and quantitatively increasing and has been able to improve the tensile capacity of the respiratory space in the central part of the city. Despite the different effects of the studied indicators of identity and sense of place of Zanjan sidewalk, all indicators have been effective on relation to the development of identity and sense of place of the sidewalk. So that the correlation of the indicators with each other was mainly positive and the indicators in general had a correlation of more than 50% in improving the level of identity and sense of place and the hypothesis of correlation of the indicators with each other was confirmed. In order to develop the level of stability of identity and sense of place, it is suggested:
•The variety of sidewalk cultural and social events and activities should be such that do not have an adverse effect on the business situation of business owners and guilds of the sidewalk area due to congestion.
•The perimeter and axes of the sidewalk should be visually and physically adapted.
•For the welfare of the residents around the sidewalk, whose traffic route is from the sidewalk, an appropriate traffic pattern should be considered.
•Appropriate scheduling methods that are in line with the working conditions of businesses and guilds.
•In holding various ceremonies, the cultural, social and religious characteristics of the citizens and the elements in the context (such as the community mosque, the mosque of the Prophet and the bazaar, etc.) should be considered.
•It is suggested that the ingredients, elements and furniture placed in the sidewalk originate from the cultural, social and historical features of the city and its citizens.


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