Reviewing and assessing principals and criteria of resilience in urban gardens sustainability (Case Study: District 1 of Tehran Municipality)

Document Type : Articles extracted from Thesis


1 Ph.D. student Environment, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor of Environmental Management and Planning, University of Tehran

3 Associate Professor of Environmental Management and Management, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran


Escalating population growth, passion for settling in cities, and unrestrained expansion of urban areas have affected most of open spaces and constructions. Uneven expansion of Tehran city threatens the gardens as well, especially in district 1 of Tehran Municipality. Therefore, it is of immense importance to identify and conserve remaining gardens. As part of urban green spaces, gardens have significant influence on efficient function of cities as human habitats. This research’s goal is investigating effective factors in resilience of urban gardens, and also determining the significance of each factor in district1 of Tehran city. The research is conducted through descriptive-analytical method and classified as practical studies. For determining gardens’ natural- structural resilience indicators, 20 faculty members and experts in the fields of environmental planning, urban and rural planning, urbanization, green spaces, and gardening were selected. Weighing the criteria was conducted by FANP method. Preparing digital layers was implemented in Geographical Information System (GIS) and ENVI. Prepared layers were then fuzzified in IDRISI and overlaid in ARC MAP. According to the resultant map of resilience in urban gardens of district 1, gardens in region 3 are totally resilient. In the contrary, gardens in region 7 have moderate resilience and are in some parts vulnerable. In region 9, gardens are in a range of totally resilient to vulnerable.


1)      شریف نیا، فاطمه(1391) بررسی رابطه کاربری زمین شهری و میزان تاب‌آوری در برابر زلزله و ارائه راهکارها درزمینه برنامه‌ریزی شهری (نمونه موردی: شهر تهران)،  پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد رشته شهرسازی، دانشکده هنرهای زیبا دانشکده شهرسازی، دانشگاه تهران.
2)      شمشیری، سجاد و دارابی، حسن(1392) طراحی و سازمان‌دهی حفاظتی–گردشگری باغات حاشیه شهر (مطالعه موردی: سراب قنبر کرمانشاه)، فصلنامه انسان و محیط‌زیست، دوره 11, شماره 1، صص 72-59.
3)      صالحی، اسماعیل؛ اقابابایی، محمدتقی؛ سرمدی، هاجر؛ فرزاد بهتاش، محمدرضا( 1390) بررسی میزان تاب‌آوری محیطی با استفاده از مدل شبکه علیت، مجله محیط‌شناسی، دوره 37، شماره 59، صص 112-99.
4)      فرزاد بهتاش، محمدرضا؛ کی نژاد، محمدعلی؛ پیر بابایی، محمدتقی؛ عسگری، علی(1392) ارزیابی و تحلیل ابعاد و مؤلفه‌های تاب‌آوری کلان‌شهر تبریز، مجله هنرهای زیبا- معماری و شهرسازی، دوره 18، شماره 3، صص 42-33.
5)      معرب، یاسر(1395) ارزیابی تاب‌آوری کاربری اراضی شهری بر پایه رویکرد توسعه پایدار (نمونه موردی: منطقه یک شهرداری تهران)، پایان‌نامه کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکده محیط‌زیست، دانشگاه تهران.
6)      نهاد برنامه‌ریزی و توسعه شهری شهرداری تهران(1389 ) مطالعات و ساماندهی باغ‌ها و اراضی مزروعی تهران، مهندسین مشاور بافت شهر.
 7)     Adger, W. N. (2000) Social and ecological resilience: are they related?. Progress in human geography,Vol 24, No 3, pp.347-364.
8)     Alberti, M., & Marzluff, J. M. (2004) Ecological resilience in urban ecosystems: linking urban patterns to human and ecological functions. Urban ecosystems, Vol 7 No 3, pp.241-265.
9)     Brand, F., & Jax, K. (2007). Focusig the meaning (s) of resilience: resilience as a descriptive concept and a boundary object. Ecology and society, Vol. 12, No.1, pp.1-15.
10)  Burton, C. G. (2012). The Development of Metrics For Community Resilience to Natural Disasters. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from,
11)   C. A., Ahmed, & A. K., Jackson, &  R., McKinnie, & D., Rubinoff, & P., Stein, & A., White, A. (2008) Coastal Community Resilience in the Indian Ocean Region: A Unifying Framework, Assessment, and Lessons Learned. In Solutions to Coastal Disasters , Vol.212, pp. 683-690
12)  Cutter, S. L., & Director, H. (2008) A framework for measuring coastal hazard resilience in New Jersey communities. White Paper for the Urban Coast Institute.
13)  Cutter, S. L. & Burton, C. G. & Emrich, C. T. (2010). Disaster resilience indicators for benchmarking baseline conditions. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, Vol.7, No. 1,pp.1-24.
14)  Folke, C. (2006). Resilience: The emergence of a perspective for social–ecological systems analyses. Global environmental change, Vol.16, No.3,pp. 253-267.
15)  Gall, M. (2013). From social vulnerability to resilience: measuring progress toward disaster risk reduction. UNU-EHS.
16)  Godschalk, D. R. (2003). Urban hazard mitigation: creating resilient cities. Natural hazards review, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp.136-143.
17)  Henstra, D. & Kovacs, P. & McBean, G. & Sweeting, R. (2004) Background paper on disaster resilient cities. Toronto: Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction.
18)  Henstra, D. & Kovacs, P. & McBean, G. & Sweeting, R. (2004) Background paper on disaster resilient cities, Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction, Toronto/ London, ON (July 10, 2007).
19)  Holling, C. S. & Gunderson, L. H. (2002) Resilience and adaptive cycles. In: Panarchy: Understanding, Transformations in Human and Natural Systems,Vol.12, No.1,pp. 25-62.
20)  Joerin,  Jonas,  & Shaw, Rajib. (2011) Chapter 3 Mapping Climate and Disaster Resilience in Cities, Climate and Disaster Resilience in Cities (Community, Environment and Disaster Risk Management, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Vol. 6 , pp.47 – 61.
21)  Johnson, M. P. (2001) Environmental impacts of urban sprawl: a survey of the literature and proposed research agenda. Environment and planning A,Vol. 33 No.4, pp.717-735.
22)  Klein, R. J. & Nicholls, R. J. & Thomalla, F. (2003) The resilience of coastal megacities to weather-related hazards. Building Safer Cities, pp.101-120.
23)  Mayunga, J. S. (2007) Understanding and applying the concept of community disaster resilience: a capital-based approach. Summer academy for social vulnerability and resilience building, A draft working paper prepared for the summer academy for social vulnerability and resilience building, 22 – 28 July 2007, Munich, Germany
24)  McEntire, D. A. & Fuller, C. &  Johnston, C. W. & Weber, R. (2002) A comparison of disaster paradigms: The search for a holistic policy guide. Public Administration Review, Vol 62, No 3, pp.267-281.
25)  Normandin, J. M. & Therrien, M.C. & Tanguay, G.A. (2011).City strength in times of turbulence: strategic resilience indicators, Urban Affairs Association 41st Conference, New Orleans.
26)  Perrings, C. (2006) Resilience and sustainable development. Environment and Development Economics, Vol 11, No 4, pp 417-427.
27)  Puente, S. (1999) Social vulnerability to disasters in Mexico City: An assessment method, Chapter, No 9, pp. 295-334.
28)  Sharifi, A. & Yamagata, Y. (2014) Major principles and criteria for development of an urban resilience assessment index. In Green Energy for Sustainable Development (ICUE), 2014 International Conference and Utility Exhibition on (pp. 1-5). IEEE.
29)  UNDP Drylands Development Centre (2013) Community Based Resilience Analysis (CoBRA): Conceptual Framework and Methodology, version May 17, 2013.
30)  Usamah, M. ( 2013) Land tenure security and resilience to multiple disasters: a study of Camalig municipality, province of Albay, the Philippines, Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Mathematical and Geospatial Sciences, RMIT University.