Document Type : Research Paper
Department of Human Geography and Science, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
Department of Urban and Regional Planning and Design, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
A B S T R A C T
Cultural and physical changes are one of the forms of modernization and globalization processes in developed countries, and today the consequences of these processes have increased in the cities of developing countries. These consequences can be examined in several urban scales, including urban neighbourhoods. The following article examines the impact of modernization and globalization in the two neighbourhoods of Amiriyeh and Zafaranieh in Tehran and the reason for their differences in physical structure and cultural identity. The research method is quantitative and its strategy is causal. The research data collection tool is based on library studies, field methods and questionnaire techniques. The sampling method is based on the corrected model of Cochran, in which 60 questionnaires are distributed in each neighbourhood and questions about cultural identity are asked from the residents of the neighbourhood, the municipal officials and the housekeepers of the neighbourhoods, and the examination of the physical structure is based on field observations. Data analysis and comparison are made using Friedman and T statistical tests. The results of this research show that due to the different cultural, social and economic texture and structure of the two neighbourhoods, and since globalization and modernization focus on areas with higher information capabilities and potentials, the Zafaranieh neighbourhood in comparison With the Amirieh neighbourhood, it has been more affected by the processes of modernization and globalization, and their consequences are very evident in the production of the space of this neighbourhood from the point of view of the physical structure and cultural identity
One of the most critical trends in history is the trend of globalization and modernity, which has been able to unite the entire human race. Cultural and physical changes are one of the forms of modernization and globalization processes in developed countries, whose consequences have increased in the cities of developing countries today. The flow of modernity in the form of modernization or underdevelopment has left different effects on the different characteristics of Iranian cities, which are mostly seen in the elements and signs of modernism and not modern thought. Therefore, the impact of the process of modernization and globalization is much more evident on a smaller scale than in the city, such as in urban neighborhoods. Also, one of the developments in the production of urban space due to the process of modernization and globalization is that based on the policies of the city government, a modern and capitalist economic system is created in the city. Following that, the body and bones of the city are changed with extensive high-rise buildings, construction based on modern architecture, etc. Moreover, with these backgrounds, the cities' physical, economic and cultural atmosphere undergo transformations with changes in policies, and these changes cause transformations in the style and way of life as well. In the city of Tehran, as a city affected by modernization and globalization, the spatial structure of neighborhoods in terms of implementing urban management policies and economic, physical, social and cultural characteristics are different from each other. The following article examines the impact of modernization and globalization in the two neighborhoods of Amiriyeh and Zafaraniyeh in Tehran and the reason for their differences in physical structure and cultural identity.
The research method is quantitative, and its strategy is causal, which seeks to discover and investigate the relationships between the factors and the specific conditions of the globalization process in cities by studying the results. The research data collection tool is based on library studies, field methods and questionnaire techniques. The statistical population consists of two neighborhoods, Zafaraniyeh and Amiriyeh. The sampling method is based on the corrected Cochran model. In each neighborhood, 60 questionnaires were distributed. The questions about cultural identity were asked from the neighbourhood's residents, the officials of the municipality and the houses of the neighborhoods, and the examination of the physical structure was based on field observations. Data analysis and comparison have been done using Friedman and T statistical tests.
Result and discussion
The results of this research show that due to the different cultural, social and economic contexts and structures of the two neighborhoods, globalization and modernization focus on areas with higher powers and potential. Compared to Amiriyeh neighborhood, Zafaraniyeh neighborhood has been more affected by the processes of modernization and globalization, and their consequences are very evident in the production of the atmosphere of this neighborhood from the perspective of the physical structure and cultural identity. This means that in the corner of the city, there are neighborhoods with the characteristics and symbols of modernization and globalization, such as investment and the creation of a large number of banks and private monetary and financial centers, tourism offices, economic and service companies between International or their headquarters, high-rise construction, luxury towers and hotels, malls and mega malls, modern architecture in buildings and houses, different and up-to-date lifestyle and consumption patterns. Finally, a form of social relations and the neighborhood with the predominance of individualism can be seen in the north of the city, such as Zafaraniyeh neighborhood.
Therefore, these differences lead to separating urban neighborhoods from each other and intensify the socio-economic inequalities, the deep gap between the rich and the poor in the cities, and distance from the sustainable and native urban life. Nevertheless, it can be said that change according to the critical and new features of modernization and globalization is the need of today's humankind; because these processes and changes have helped to make life better and more accessible, and living in today's world should be according to the features and characteristics of the present time. Also, coexistence with other nations according to special laws is another characteristic of the present age; but as long as it does not lead to the dimming of the characteristics and elements of identity and does not intensify the differences and dualities in the urban space, so that the integration of urban spatial development ends in social cohesion, which is one of the important factors of sustainable urban development.
There is no funding support.
All of the authors approved thecontent of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work.
Conflict of Interest
Authors declared no conflict of interest.
We are grateful to all the scientific consultants of this paper.