Evaluating factors affecting the sense of belonging to a place with the Happy City approach (Case example: Urmia metropolis)

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Marand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marand, Iran




Today, having a happy city has become one of the main reasons for urban management systems, especially in developed countries. Hence, urban planners try to study the impact of urban spaces on residents in order to have a lively and happy city. Because urban environments can strengthen the positive feelings and mental health of citizens. It is as if happiness is a phenomenon that fades with the passage of time in Iran, and this requires attention to the discussion of social vitality and happiness. It seems that in addition to the social economic factors influencing the low vitality and happiness of Iran, today one of the factors that have the greatest impact on the vitality and happiness of cities and citizens compared to the past few decades, are physical factors (urban spaces). . Due to the rapid population growth and the expansion of cities as well as traffic, visual pollution, unavailability of services, lack of public spaces suitable for recreation, lack of social connections, lack of suitable sidewalks, and overall lack of population-attracting spaces and real functional urban spaces (Happy City ) have lost themselves. In such a way that the lack of vitality and feeling of happiness in urban places and spaces is considered as one of the basic challenges of contemporary urban planners and designers in Iran. The problem is that the metropolis of Urmia is not free from these problems and may face more challenges and problems. According to the studies conducted in this field in Urmia, this city has a lower level of vitality than other cities in Iran. Conducting this research can present the state of happiness and the factors affecting it in the city of Urmia and the extent of the effect and importance of each, the important factors and variables affecting happiness and the factors affecting the sense of place in the city of Urmia. Because this research is considered as part of applied-field research in terms of its purpose, it can be applied in urban management systems of Urmia.

Research Methods

In terms of its purpose, this research is considered a part of field-applied research; Because its results can be applied in urban management systems. To extract the data used in this section, the statistics and information of the Statistics Center as well as the reports of the Welfare Organization, the Imam Khomeini Relief Committee, the Management and Planning Organization of the Province and the Municipality of the author's calculations and studies were used. In this research, by designing a questionnaire and determining the sample size and other methodological factors, correlation and regression statistical methods were used in the SPSS software environment for data analysis.

Discussion and findings

The results obtained from the application of regression analysis have been used to investigate the correlation between the dependent variable (sense of belonging to a place in Urmia city) and independent variables (factors affecting the sense of belonging to a place with the Shad Shahr approach). The sense of belonging to an urban place in In order to realize a happy city, it depends a lot on the changes and economic development and the organization of living conditions, social relations and collective actions of citizens, as well as the organization of the landscape and body of the city. If we can pay attention and plan the indicators and facilities, economic-economic flows and limitations, social conditions as well as landscape and physical conditions of different areas of Urmia city, the realization of the happy city will not be far from the expectation.

After determining the degree of correlation between citizens' sense of spatial belonging and physical-spatial, economic-living, environmental and bio-ecological, social-behavioral, security, administrative-political, religious-psychological factors or environment (dimensions) related to the realization of a happy city; Using the method of path analysis, the extent and manner of the impact of each of these factors on increasing the sense of belonging to the place of the citizens and the realization of the happy city in Urmia have been investigated.


According to the statements of the citizens of Urmia, the income status of the citizens, including their satisfaction with their income, the level of purchasing power and provision of the basic needs of the citizens, the degree of proportionality between the income status and living expenses (housing, food, etc.) and related concerns. By providing for citizens' health and treatment costs, having savings to meet the needs of life in the future, the balance in the distribution of wealth and the absence of class gaps between the members of the society and the place of residence, the degree of flexibility of the economy of the city of residence against economic crises and accidents, the unemployment situation and Inflation in the place of residence of citizens in the last few years, as well as factors related to the employment status of citizens, including the level of satisfaction with job stability, the level of job security, and the level of satisfaction with one's job have a significant impact on realizing a happy city and increasing their sense of place.

The results of applying regression analysis to investigate the correlation between the dependent variable (sense of belonging to a place in Urmia city) and independent variables (factors affecting the sense of belonging to a place with the Shad Shahr approach) showed that the highest amount of factors affecting the sense of belonging to a place With the happy city approach, it was economic-economic (R2=0.662), social-behavioral (R2=0.659) and physical-spatial (R2=0.654) indicators.

The results of the multivariate regression analysis model and the path analysis also showed that the sense of belonging to the place with the approach of realizing the happy city has a significant correlation with economic (R2=0.536) and social indicators (R2=0.502) and in other words, the sense of belonging to A place with the approach of realizing a happy city in Urmia; It has a high and significant dependence on the economic-economic status of the citizens as well as the developments and development of social relations.


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