Factors Affecting Value Creation in Historical Areas with Emphasis on Urban Regeneration (Case Study: Historical area of District 11 of Tehran)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Urban Planning, Pardis Branch, Islamic Azad University, Pardis, Iran

2 Department of Urban Planning, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran


Many theories and approaches to preserving this precious heritage have been elaborated and introduced since the attention of urban planners and managers has shifted toward preserving and restoring historical areas. The most important of these approaches used today in many parts of the world is urban recreation. In addition to the historical boundaries of the city, besides physical restoration, it requires programs and strategies that lead to economic prosperity in weak and inactive areas. Therefore, in this study, after introducing urban regeneration approaches such as culture based Regeneration, tourism-based Regeneration and urban branding-based Regeneration, the components of creating value added strategies based on these approaches were introduced. The results obtained by using descriptive and inferential statistics indicate the physical and functional potentials for creating value in the study area. Also, the results of SEM on the value creation indexes in the historical area of Region 11 show a strong and significant impact of functional and physical dimensions as effective tools for creating value added in the context. In functional dimension metrics, factor loadings are indicators of the concentration and reinforcement of the role of political centrality, and in the physical dimension of factor loadings, the creation of branding through historical landmarks for future policy making is significant
Extended Abstract
One of the most important influential factors in the historical context to which the life of the context can be considered depends on economics. Historical texture requires a healthy economy in line with the type of life and its harmony with the contemporary era to survive; in a way that can meet the needs of human beings. On the other hand, in the relatively recent urban planning literature, the term urban regeneration is used as a general term that includes other concepts such as improvement, renovation, reconstruction, empowerment, and psychology. Urban regeneration is a process that leads to the creation of new urban space while maintaining the main spatial features (physical and functional). In this regard, District 11 of Tehran has unique physical and functional importance compared to other areas of Tehran due to its particular political, economic, religious position, and centrality features. Despite numerous valuable places, half of the area has a dysfunctional texture and suffers from urban decline. Therefore, the research's central question can be posed: What are the contexts in the study area to create spatial value to stimulate development along with valuable and historical texture and lead to sustainable urban regeneration? For this purpose, this study was formed with the aim of "creating value in historical contexts to improve the quality of the environment and the living standards of citizens in such contexts.” Also, in response to the question of what strategies are effective in creating added value in the historical context, this study tries to identify spatial potentials through a theoretical model and achieve a set of strategies unique to the historical texture of District 11 to reproduce value.
This research is part of applied and quantitative researches in terms of purpose and data analysis, respectively. To gather information for the present study, identify potentials in the region that can be converted into value and act as a catalyst, two methods of library studies, the use of
statistics and information, and a questionnaire were used. The statistical population in this study includes all effective actors (special-interest and advocacy groups) in determining the hidden values ​​ in the historical texture of the region, including residents, businesses, and city managers. In this study, 200 samples were considered according to the type of analysis. Based on the theoretical foundations of the research, five economic, social, cultural, physical, and functional dimensions and measures of each were considered to explain the study's conceptual model. The structural equation method has been used for the inferential analysis of the research.
Results and discussion
Descriptive findings of the study show that out of a total of 200 completed questionnaires, 105 (52.5%) were completed by men, and 95 (47.5%) were completed by women. The presence of 43% of the statistical sample in district 11 was residences, 25% was business, 21% was the factor of both living and work, and the remaining 11% were the items such as shopping and tourism. This study analyzed the understanding of the existing potentials for the orientation of reconstruction projects in the study area in five economic, social, physical, cultural, and social dimensions. Each of these dimensions will have its own special and unique effects, and their degree of importance and role will vary according to the program's goals.
Based on the findings of structural equation analysis in this study, all dimensions have a high factor load and show a significant impact of all dimensions of regeneration on value creation in the study area. But among the dimensions, the regression coefficient of functional, physical, and social dimensions is 0.94, 0.924, and 0.926, respectively, which is higher than cultural and economic dimensions. This means that the role, function, and type of land use, environmental qualities, and urban spaces created along with local social capital will effectively create value in regeneration projects. On the other hand, the study of the coefficients obtained for the measures of each dimension shows that attention to the political-administrative centrality with a coefficient of 0.84, in the functional dimension, as well as the existence of attractive routes due to historical places and buildings as a sign with 0.875, in the physical dimension, had the highest regression coefficients.
The results of structural equation analysis on added value creation indicators in the historical context of district 11 show a significant and robust effect of functional and physical dimensions as effective tools in creating added value in the context. In terms of functional dimension, the factor load of the index of concentration and strengthening the role of the political centrality of the capital in the area and in the physical dimension, the factor load of creating attractive tourist routes due to historical sites, are significant for future urban policies. Therefore, one of the central policies resulting from this research can be the focus of city managers on the relocation of political centers instead of their scattered surface in Tehran. This policy can be a stimulus for proper development of the mentioned texture by appropriate location next to historical places. In addition, in many cities, the establishment of these political centers with luxurious architecture and historical sites has created an excellent synergy in creating high-quality and well-visited alleys.
There is no funding support.
Authors’ Contribution
All of the authors approved thecontent of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work.
Conflict of Interest
Authors declared no conflict of interest.
We are grateful to all the scientific consultants of this paper.


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