Document Type : Research Paper
Department of Geography, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran
Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
A B S T R A C T
The growth of urbanization, which has usually been accompanied by economic growth had negative consequences such as social inequalities, poverty, environmental crises, class differences, poor housing and homelessness, and informal settlements. One of the characteristics of third world cities such as Isfahan city is urban poverty. In these cities, there are always a limited number of neighborhoods in welfare and comfort, and at the opposite point, some residents do not enjoy these urbanization benefits. Awareness and study of different dimensions of urban poverty and evaluation of poverty indicators and assessing the needs of citizens living below the urban standard in informal settlements, in management and decision-making and achieving urban welfare in urban regeneration to improve the existing conditions and residents' satisfaction can be very be effectiveness. According to the mentioned cases, the purpose of this study is to analyze the indicators of urban poverty in the 14th district of Isfahan in order to have informal settlements. The type of applied research is in the framework of descriptive-analytical methods and for data collection, survey and documentary methods and for their analysis, descriptive statistical techniques, one-sample T analysis have been used. From the findings of the research and analysis of indicators and the study of case studies, it can be said that the employment and economic conditions dimension with a total average of 2.07 and the housing dimension with a total average of 2.11 are lower than the standard average and more dissatisfaction. At the same time, urban services and facilities under the physical indicator is more satisfied, but less than the average standard, and as a result, by improving economic conditions and paying attention to public services and urban facilities, the urban poverty of these areas can be reduced.
Despite all the efforts made, there is still the problem of poverty, especially in big cities, and with the increase in population and the limited resources of these cities to respond to the expectations and needs caused by the change in lifestyle, urban poverty is also expanding, and therefore its importance is increasing day by day. Currently, there are no tools that can eradicate poverty and change the fate of people. Therefore, the task of geography and urban planning is to look for solutions to reduce it.
Region 14 of Isfahan Municipality in the northeast of this city with an area of 1938 hectares has 12 neighbourhoods, five neighbourhoods of Dark, Arznan, Zainabieh, Sudan and Batan are among the villages around the city of Isfahan, which have been included in the urban area during the past decades. Ignoring the trend of economic development in the neighbourhoods mentioned above has not hindered the operation of parts of it, especially the border strip of Amman Samani, Arznan, Imam Khomeini and Mantazer al-Mahdi areas in the form of an informal land and housing market in Isfahan. Currently, some of the mentioned neighbourhoods, after The integration of several informal settlements in areas with a rural context and newly built settlements have been connected to the main body of the city. The main goal of this research is to analyze the indicators of urban poverty in informal settlements in the 14th district of Isfahan City so that based on the findings, it can take a step towards reducing urban poverty.
he current research is applied research in terms of the subject matter, and in terms of the nature of the methodology, it is in the framework of descriptive-analytical methods, and to collect data, documentary and field methods based on observation and questionnaires were used. Validity has been confirmed by the authors of the article in the form of a superficial examination of the indicators and the fit of the items with the indicators, and for its reliability using Cronbach's alpha. The statistical population of the research is based on the population of the study area of 164,850 people, using Cochran's formula, 382 questionnaires were prepared and selected as the sample population. The mentioned questionnaire in the first part deals with personal characteristics and the second part with measuring urban poverty variables. To measure the identification indicators, by using the questionnaire of experts, which included 30 professors and experts in geography and urban planning, urban planning and civil engineering, the indexers were weighted, and the indexers whose average was higher than the standard limit (3) have been measured (Table No. 2). Based on the mentioned materials and studies, urban poverty has been evaluated in the form of five economic, social and cultural, physical, spatial, environmental and management indicators and 51 sub-indexes.
Results and discussion
Urban environments are complex systems with complex phenomena, multiple relationships and interactions between components. In the meantime, urban poverty has faced a kind of heterogeneity, heterogeneity, duality or severe polarization and imbalance and balance of cities, as a kind of dual cities has found a spatial aspect in the form of the areas of the poor and the rich. In such a way that on the one hand, we can witness the lack of services, problems and social disorders and anomalies, social breakdown, poor access to infrastructure services and the decline of social, economic, physical and environmental indicators and on the other hand the best city services belong to a certain part of the city. and you can see a good quality of life. According to these conditions, a kind of duality and urban contradiction has been formed, as on one side of the cities, there are marginal and dilapidated neighbourhoods with the lowest quality of life, and they suffer from the lack of desirable urban facilities and services, poverty, deprivation, high population density, and numerous social harms and anomalies. And on the other hand, there are luxury and expensive houses, desirable neighbourhoods in terms of livability and excellent urban facilities and services.
According to the research conducted in 2018, the investigated neighbourhoods have a high population density and in terms of income, about 70% of them have an income of fewer than three million Tomans, and more than two households live in more than 50% of the residential units. In terms of the small size of residential units, more than 40% of them have an area of less than 100 square meters. Their main priority is living expenses with an average of more than 50%, improving the physical condition of housing and moving to another place is mentioned. By examining all the desired dimensions to measure citizens' satisfaction with services and resources to investigate urban poverty, it can be seen that the dimension of employment and economic conditions with a total average of 2.07 and the dimension of housing with a total average of 2.11 are lower than the average standard and dissatisfaction It is more among the residents.
There is no funding support.
All of the authors approved thecontent of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work.
Conflict of Interest
Authors declared no conflict of interest.
We are grateful to all the scientific consultants of this paper.