Explaining the Model of Sustainability of Coastal Cities with the Approach of Sports Revenue Generation Case Study: Beach Volleyball in Bandar-e Torkman

Document Type : Article extracted From phd dissertation


1 Department of Physical Education, Aliabad Katoul Branch, Islamic Azad University, Aliabad Katoul, Iran.

2 Department of Physical Education, Azadshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Azadshahr, Iran.


Hosting sport events periodically can be considered as a possible way to stabilize income for cities, because these types of events can cause the presence of sports tourists in the host cities, and as a result, provide sustainable income to urban organizations as well as local people. The pourpose of the present study was to present a sustainability model for coastal cities with the approach of sports income (case study: Bandar Turkmen beach volleyball). The present study was descriptive-survey in terms of practical purpose, qualitative in terms of data collection method and qualitative based on research approach. The statistical population of the present study included 14 experts aware of sports economics. The present research instrument was semi-structured interviews. Coding in accordance with the Strauss and Corbin paradigm model was used to evaluate the qualitative data. The results of the present study showed that causal conditions affect the sustainability of coastal cities with an approach to sports income generation including existing financial problems, recreational sports potentials, coastal volleyball potentials and past experiences. The results of the present study also revealed that the contextual conditions include technical infrastructure, legal issues, cultural issues, organizational support and motivation. The results of the present study also showed that both macro and micro factors affect the sustainability of coastal cities with an approach to sports revenue generation. The results of the present study showed that the use of beach volleyball capacities can be useful for the sustainability of coastal cities with the approach of sports revenue generation. The research model showed that paying attention to various aspects could pave the way for the sustainable development of coastal cities.
Extended Abstract
Iran's urban population and the phenomenon of urbanization have grown significantly in recent years. The reason for this increase is the migration of people from villages to cities. This wide range of city residents needs sufficient and stable sources of income for livelihood as well as the implementation of urban management and development programs. The absence or weakness of sustainable sources of income in cities, especially in small cities, has caused the financial inefficiency of urban management and made their residents' daily lives difficult. Therefore, it seems necessary to adopt new models and financial policies based on the potential and facilities of cities for residents and managers of cities to have access to sustainable incomes. One way to stabilize cities' income is to hold periodic sports events. Because these types of events can cause the presence of sports tourists in the host cities and, as a result, provide sustainable income to urban organizations as well as local people. Revenue generation is one of the most important components of the sports industry, which plays a special role in increasing countries' economic growth. Considering Iran's reliance on a single-product economy and escape from economic pressures and crises, the need to pay attention to this part of the country's sports industry, which can flourish and develop, is needed more than ever. According to the geographical situation of Bandar-e Torkman city, some sports, including beach volleyball, have a good position in this city. The research aimed to provide a model of sustainability of coastal cities with the approach of sports revenue generation with an emphasis on beach volleyball in Bandar-e Torkman.
The current research was applied in terms of purpose and survey in terms of data collection method and qualitatively based on the research approach. For this purpose, a qualitative method using interviews was used to build the model. The statistical population of the current research included experts who are knowledgeable about
income generation and sports economics and had the necessary experience and knowledge regarding the research subject. In order to identify these people, the purposeful sampling method was used. The tool used in this research was a semi-structured interview, which continued until theoretical saturation was reached. A total of 14 interviews were conducted. The stages of data analysis were performed through open coding, axial coding (Strauss and Corbin paradigm model), and selective coding (choosing a central category as the main and determining the relationship between each central category), providing a logical paradigm or visual image concluded from the developing theory.
Results and discussion
At the end of the interview process, 72 items were identified in the form of six general components of causal conditions, contextual conditions, intervening conditions, main phenomenon, strategies, and consequences. The results of this research showed that the causal conditions affecting the stability of coastal cities with the approach of sports revenue generation include:

Existing financial problems;
The potential of recreational sports;
The potential of beach volleyball;
Past experiences.

This research also revealed that the contextual conditions include technical infrastructure, legal issues, cultural issues, organizational support, and motivation. Also, the current research results indicated that both macro and micro factors of intervening conditions are effective on the sustainability of coastal cities with the approach of sports revenue generation. The present research also determined that according to the presented model, the sustainability of coastal cities with the approach of sports monetization with emphasis on the development of beach volleyball in Bandar-e Torkman will have financial and organizational consequences.
In this way, it is clear that the sustainability of coastal cities with the approach of generating income from sports, emphasizing the development of beach volleyball in Bandar-e Torkman, while creating sustainable resources, will solve many of the financial and organizational problems of coastal cities. On the other hand, the capacity of beach volleyball to attract audiences due to the attractiveness of this sport can increase the probability of success of this plan. According to the presented model, it is suggested to implement the following strategies for the sustainability of coastal cities with the approach of sports monetization with emphasis on the development of beach volleyball in Bandar-e Torkman:
The formation of specialized committees regarding the creation of income sources in Bandar-e Torkman, the recruitment and cultivation of expert and knowledgeable human resources in the field of finance and economy in the management system of Bandar-e Torkman, inflation control policies in recreational sports by using effective financial tools, outsourcing marketing activities in beach volleyball to domestic and foreign expert organizations and groups, facilitating the presence of the private sector in the development of beach volleyball in Bandar-e Torkman, creating and providing incentive packages to leading organizations in order to achieve income stability in Bandar-e Torkman. , upgrading the technical and electronic infrastructures of Bandar-e Torkman in the direction of coherent financial management, adapting the structure of Bandar-e Torkman to the procedures related to the stability of income sources, creating inter-organizational memorandums between the Ministry of Sports and Youth and the Ministry of Cultural Heritage, Tourism and Handicrafts regarding the development of beach volleyball and media coverage of beach volleyball competitions and events.
There is no funding support.
Authors’ Contribution
All of the authors approved thecontent of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work.
Conflict of Interest
Authors declared no conflict of interest.
We are grateful to all the scientific consultants of this paper.


  1. CórdovaParedes, Mauricio. Calabuig Moreno, Ferran. & Alonso Dos Santos, Manuel. (2019) Key determinants on non-governmental organization’s financial sustainability: A case study that examines 2018 FIFA foundation social festival selected participants. Sustainability, Vol. 11. No. 5, pp. 1411.
  2. Deng, Chenliang. & Li, Liang. (2019) A study on the development of leisure sports industry of China’s Sichuan in the age of big data. In ITM Web of Conferences (Vol. 26, p. 1005). EDP Sciences. ‌
  3. Camagni, Roberto. Capello, Roberta. & Nijkamp, Peter. (1998) Towards sustainable city policy: An economy-environment technology nexus. Ecological economics, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 103-118.‌
  4. Eslambulchi, Alireza. Emami, Alireza. Jozei, Narges. & Maroufi, Fakhradin. (2018) Prioritization of municipalities strategies for sustainable income and financing resources. European Journal of Management & Marketing Studies., Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 26-42.
  5. Goodwin, Harold. (2002) Local community involvement in tourism around national parks: Opportunities and constraints. Current Issues in tourism, Vol. 5, No. 3-4, pp. 338-360.‌
  6. Hundloe, Tor. & McDonald, Geoff. (1997) Ecologically sustainable development and the better cities program. Australian Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 88-111.‌
  7. Milner, James. et al. (2019) Environmental risks of cities in the European region: analyses of the Sustainable Healthy Urban Environments (SHUE) database. Public health panorama: Journal of the WHO Regional Office for Europe, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 300.‌
  8. Mussi, Cristiane. & Pinto, Marcos. (2014) Pension deficit in Brazilian social security system: Legal remarks and strategies towards financial sustainability. Panorama of Brazilian Law, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 309-329.
  9. Nyembezi, Voyu. Rootman, Chantal. & Tait, Madele. (2019) The South African public broadcaster’s financial sustainability: Internal stakeholders’ perceptions. Acta Commerci, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 1-12.
  10. Olokoyo, Felicia. George, Tayo. Efobi, Uchenna. & Beecroft, Ibukun. (2017) Land deals and sustainable income: the case of a rural community in Ogun State, Nigeria. In Natural Resources Management: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications. IGI Global. 1004-1019
  11. Ross, Andrew. (2011) Bird on fire: Lessons from the world's least sustainable city. OUP USA.‌
  12. Savić, Zvezdan. et al. (2018) The sports industry and achieving top sports results. Facta Universitatis, Series: Physical Education and Sport, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 513-522. ‌
  13. Schwab, Leila. Gold, Stefan. & Reiner, Gerald. (2019) Exploring financial sustainability of SMEs during periods of production growth: A simulation study. International Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 212, pp. 8-18.
  14. Tsui, Kai. (2011) China's infrastructure investment boom and local debt crisis. Eurasian Geography & Economics, Vol. 52. No. 5, pp. 686-711.
  15. Waage, Sissel. et al. (2005) Fitting together the building blocks for sustainability: a revised model for integrating ecological, social, and financial factors into business decision-making. Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 13, No. 12, pp. 1145-1163.
  16. Zainoddin, Amir. Amran, Azlan. & Shaharudin, Mohd. (2017) Factor that impacts the capability development and sustainable income of the rural development programme in Malaysia. Advanced Science Letters, Vol. 23, No. 11, pp. 10621-10624.‌
  17. Falahati, Ali; Fatahi, Shahram; Heydari Dizgarani, Ali; Shokri, Naeem. (2016) Investigating financial stability and transient financial shocks on Iran's economy. Financial Economics Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 41, pp. 123-154. [In Persian]
  18. Ganj Khanlu, Arzoo; Architecture, Jaleh; Khabeiri, Mohammad. (2017) The strategic position of Iran's sports industry from the point of view of experts and the presentation of development marketing strategies, the second national conference on sports science and health achievements in Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences. [In Persian]
  19. Ghahramanian, Amirreza. (2014) Examining the dimensions of sports economics, International Congress of Management, Economics and Business Development, Tabriz, Permanent Secretariat of the Congress. [In Persian]
  20. Haji Lo, Mehran; Mireei, Mohammad; Pilehvar, Mehdi. (2016) Investigating sources of sustainable incomes of municipalities (Study case: Shabest city of East Azerbaijan). Economics and Urban Management, Vol. 45, No. 20, pp. 1-22. [In Persian]
  21. Jahantigh, Saeed. (2013) Sports industry and its effects on the development of Makran coasts, the first national conference on non-active defense in marine sciences, Bandar Abbas, Ministry of Interior and General Directorate of Non-active Defense. [In Persian]
  22. Vesali Azar Sharbiani, Mohammad. (2016) Comparative study of the revenue sources of municipalities in Iran and the world, the third annual conference on architecture, urban planning and urban management research, Shiraz, Sefiran Rah Mehrazi Institute of Architecture and Urban Planning, pp. 12-124. [In Persian]
  23. Arghan, Abbas. Talebi, Ali. & GolMohammadi, Mohammad. (2019) Assessment of the tourism opportunity’s role in developing sources of municipal sustainable Income (Case study: Sarakhs City). Journal of Tourism & Hospitality Research, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 5-13.‌
  24. Bich, Ngoc. (2016) The effect of capital structure and legal status on financial sustainability of MFSI in developing countries. Review of Business and Economics Studies, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 53-64.
  25. Bingham, T & Walters, Geoff. (2013) Financial sustainability within UK charities: Community sport trusts and corporate social responsibility partnerships. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary & Nonprofit Organizations, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 606-629.