Document Type : Research Paper
Assistant Professor, Department of Geography and Urban Planning, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
PhD Candidate in Geography and Urban Planning,, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
Combining the two approaches of urban good governance and social resilience, leads to the ability to create opportunities for citizens to express their wants and needs, the reconstruction of civil society to strengthen and enhance local communities, institutions, and organizations, improvement the quality of life and growth of stakeholders’s participation and cooperation in political and social processes within cities and even in the face of risks. This forms positive economic and social tendencies, and also the sustainability of life. In other words, social resilience stems from urban good governance. In recent decades, many crises (including earthquakes, floods, the spread of disease, etc.) have endangered the lives of citizens and made the city and its inhabitants vulnerable to natural and human threats. Thus, social resilience focuses more than anything else on the capacity of places and social systems to respond to threats and harms. Since the beginning of the New Year, a new pandemic called Covid-19 or Corona, unlike its predecessors (Plague, Cholera, Ebola, Influenza, etc.), not only, it has moved from east to west more rapidly; rather, it has changed the lifestyle, culture of interactions, and social interactions and has influenced the discussion of how to manage urban life. However, Iranian cities, including Tabriz, have not been spared from Covid-19 and have contracted the virus. Therefore, the present study seeks to analyze the effect of the components of urban good governance on the promotion of social resilience of citizens against the Covid-19 in the city of Tabriz and also to answer the following questions: What effect does good urban governance have on citizens' social resilience to the risks of Covid-19? Which of the components of urban good governance has promoted the social resilience of citizens against the risks of Covid-19 in the city of Tabriz?
The present research is applied in terms of purpose and qualitative-quantitative in aspects of the nature and method of research. The qualitative part includes identifying the effective components of urban good governance on the social resilience of citizens against the risks of Covid-19 in Tabriz by examining the theoretical foundations of research and Delphi analysis with the participation of 15 urban planning experts in universities and research centers as panel members. In order to sample experts and elites, the available method including scientific experience, willingness, and ability to participate in research has been used. Then the components of optimal urban governance are determined by the fuzzy Delphi method. In the quantitative part, using the structural equation analysis model and path analysis method in PLS software, the type of components has been determined according to the effectiveness and impressionability of other components. The used components in this study are the components of urban good governance. In order to select the components, in addition to studying the theoretical foundations and backgrounds, the opinions of experts in the field of urban good governance, as well as the opinions of university professors, have been exerted. In this regard and in this study, nine main components of urban good governance, including transparency, participation, legitimacy, justice, responsibility and accountability, efficiency and effectiveness, consensus, and flexibility have been exploited.
Results and discussion
Findings from the questionnaire in the first round of Delphi and considering that the tolerance threshold is set at 0.7, indicate that out of 48 provided components to experts, in total, the fuzzy numerical value of 29 components, higher than 0.7, have been obtained and confirmed as effective components on promoting social resilience and 19 components have obtained a value less than 0.7 which indicates that these components, are not approved by experts as an important factor in social resilience. In the second stage of the fuzzy Delphi method, 29 approved components by the experts from the first stage, in the form of other questionnaires, and to start the second phase of the fuzzy Delphi method has been provided to the experts. At this stage, after analyzing and comparing it with the results of the first period, the difference of experts should be less than the pre-threshold level of 0.2 to stop the polling process. According to the comparisons, the assembly of experts disagreed in two stages was less than 0.2, so Delphi will stop in the second round. According to the fuzzy numerical value in the second stage, 28 components have obtained a value higher than 0.7 and have been approved by experts.
Given the prevalence of Covid-19 in the world and the subsequent epidemic of this disease in Iranian cities, including Tabriz, the need to pay attention to the principles of urban good governance to manage this crisis and promote social resilience of citizens against the risks of Covid-19, is important. Therefore, in this study, to explain the effects of urban good governance on the social resilience of citizens against the Covid-19 epidemic in Tabriz, first, the effective components in this field were identified by fuzzy Delphi method and then by structural equation analysis model and path analysis method in PLS software, the type of components is determined according to the effectiveness and impressionability on other components. According to the results, the components of governance at the level of significance p <0/05 have a positive and significant effect on social resilience that the component of participation with the most impact with a coefficient of 0.396 in the first place and after those components of responsibility with a coefficient of 0.395 and accountability with a coefficient of 0.355 are in the next ranks. Therefore, in increasing the social resilience of citizens to deal with the Corona crisis in the city of Tabriz, participation with items such as the possibility of institutional capacity building in the management of Covid-19 crisis, creating a neighborhood, the amount of education of citizenship rights and duties and promoting a culture of participation has been most effective on countering Covid-19.