Document Type : Research Paper
PhD Student in Urban Planning, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran
Assistant Professor of Urban Planning, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran
Assistant Professor of Climatology, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran
In a world that is moving towards globalization, cities are increasingly competing to attract new businessmen, investors, tourists and citizens to their region. Many of these regions use branding techniques to differentiate their identities from others or use this method to make what they offer unique. The urban brand has been adapted from the world of business and has been used to promote urban development and the quality of life of citizens. Therefore, in this research in Zanjan city (case study), all urban spaces are highlighted according to the time and place dimension and the way of functioning in the city. And this city, which is a city for travelers crossing the northwest of the country through the capital, becomes a travel destination. The historical background of the people living in the city, how they use urban spaces and how they interact with travelers are among the factors that can be effective in expressing the principles of branding in Zanjan. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to investigate the situation of urban branding components in Zanjan to identify the potentials and weaknesses of this city for urban branding. The present study was conducted in response to the question of whether the development of an urban branding has an effect on increasing revenue and capital management in Zanjan?
The present study is part of applied research in terms of purpose and is part of descriptive in terms of implementation or strategy. This study is a mixed research consisting of two quantitative and qualitative parts. The data collection method in the present study is based on quantitative and qualitative data, semi-structured interview and questionnaire. The effective factors on branding were identified using semi-structured interviews. The results of fuzzy hierarchical analysis and strategic analysis were presented using quantitative data obtained from the pairwise comparison questionnaire and Porter’s Five Forces Model. The statistical sample of the present study was 20 specialists and 20 urban managers who were selected using snowball sampling method. According to the value of 0.29 based on the CVR table, it can be said that the data collection tool has good validity in the present study. In the present study, Cohen's Kappa coefficient method was exerted to the reliability of data collection tools. Based on the calculations, Cohen's Kappa coefficient in the present study is equal to 0.74, which indicates the appropriate level of reliability for data collection tools.
Results and discussion
The method of analysis at this stage of the research consists of two main parts as following:
First, internal and external forces were determined according to the views and opinions of the experts, and thus, the final weight was given to each factor. Finally, the necessary strategy and Zanjan brand will be developed. Experts have been used to formulate the Potter strategy. In this way, they were asked to mention solutions to improve the forces aligned and eliminate the danger of the forces opposed to urban branding, based on all internal and external forces aligned and opposed to urban branding. Revenue and investment management of Zanjan city has been identified in the form of historical and cultural identity. Therefore, the brand identity of Zanjan city can be searched in the history and culture of this city. According to them, presenting the brand to the stakeholders along with advertising is essential for the brand. In the present study, after selecting and presenting the brand name of Zanjan city, the logo of Zanjan city has been presented based on the opinion of experts in the field of marketing and logo design. In presenting the present brand logo, an attempt has been made to show the cultural and historical identity of Zanjan, which was described in the previous parts of the research.
The highest priority among foreign forces in line with the explanation of urban brand in Zanjan is proximity to Tehran as the most important center of capital and income of the country, location on the route of the northern and northwestern provinces of the country, and the existence of suitable air, rail and road infrastructures for domestic and foreign visitors. Also, the lowest priority was to create new job opportunities and restaurants and hotels full of travelers, the possibility of expanding skills training for new forces to enter the sector compared to other economic sectors and the existence of rituals and religious places of interest to the public. Also, among the foreign forces opposed to the definition of urban brand in Zanjan, the high cost of competition with the attractions of neighbouring provinces has the highest priority and the lack of positive imagery and attractive branding of the cities of the province is in the lowest priority. The score obtained from the evaluation of the effective internal factors on the urban branding in Zanjan is 1.42, which indicates the dominance of strengths over weaknesses in the domestic environment. Also, achieving a final score of 1.62 in the evaluation of the effective external factors on the explanation of the urban branding in Zanjan, shows the dominance of opportunities over existing threats in the external environment. Accordingly, the application of scores obtained from the evaluation of internal and external factors indicates the position of "growth and development" to explain the urban brand in Zanjan.