Assessing Urban Environmental Justice Based on Spatial Distribiution of Tourism Ecosystem Services Case Study: Tehran Megalopolise

Document Type : Article extracted From phd dissertation


1 Ph.D. candidate of Environmental Planning, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor of Environmental Management and Planning, University of Tehran

3 Associate Professor of Department of Environmental Management Planning University ofTehran, Tehran, Iran.

4 Full Professor of Department of Environmental Management Planning University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran



Urban environmental justice is considered as one of the urban sustainable development pillars to improve the quality of life, freedom, welfare, and security for all citizens. The aim of this study is to evaluate the equitable distribution of tourism ecosystem services as one of the most important urban ecosystem services. The research methodology is based on analytical evaluation method that  examines the current status of tourism ecosystem service distribution by using  of supply, demand and access analysis to evaluate the equitable distribution of tourism ecosystem services. Three models containing Invest tourism model, Geocache and Tourism Opportunity Spectrum model were used to estimate  flow, supply, and access to this ecosystem services. Also, Social status indicators were used to deman analysis  all over districts of Tehran. Results of each three models, revealed that  however there is high demand for this service in the southern and central districts , tourism ecosystem services flow and supply in northern districts especially No.1 to 4 districts were higher than others  in all three models. Despite the similar outcomes of all three models, the tourism opportunity spectrum model provided better results for assessing the toursm ecosystem services. Finally, main results of this study confirmed injustice of ecosystem services distrbution in Tehran so that the southern and central districts of Tehran do not benefit adequately from this ecosystem service due to distance, inadequate access, and lower socioeconomic status


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