Measuring the Distributive Justice of Urban Parks based on the Level of Citizens Services the Case Study of District 1 of Tehran

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Architecture, Kish International Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kish Island, Iran



With the growth and development of urbanization, the connection of city dwellers with nature has decreased. Therefore, public parks have become very important in cities. The current research will seek to determine the spatial justice index of parks in Tehran's 1st district by using modelling, GIS analysis functions, and the pair weighting method. This research, explains the 4 main indicators of the justice of the spatial distribution of parks, including the share of the park population from the area of influence, the efficiency of the parks, the elasticity of the population of blocks in the area of influence, and also using the research method of information modelling, it is found that the spatial distribution of parks is based on the hierarchical division in Zone 1 of Tehran is random and has 3 modes: 1- Spatial distribution of neighbourhood and neighbourhood parks with a small distance from each other 2- Spatial distribution of regional and district parks in a single neighbourhood 3- A combination of the spatial distribution of regional and district parks near neighbourhood and neighbourhood parks. In the analyses performed, the first and third modes of justice index of the spatial distribution of parks show a higher numerical value. Meanwhile, the third mode shows a lower numerical value due to the concentration of a regional or district park in a neighbourhood. Based on this, to investigate the level of distribution inequality at the neighbourhood level, it was found that the distribution of a park at the regional and district level alone has caused inequality at the neighbourhood level, including Gulab Dareh neighbourhood, Niavaran. Also, using the Gini coefficient, we find that places like Gulab Dareh, Niavaran, Hazar Seng, Dezashib, Hekmat, etc. have the highest level of inequality in the spatial distribution of parks in their level
Extended Abstract
The transformation of cities over time and the rapid growth of the world's urban population on the one hand and the inability of urban management to meet the needs of citizens, on the other hand, has led to a decrease in injustice for urban servants. With the growth and development of urbanization, the connection of urban residents with nature has decreased. Therefore, public parks in cities have become so crucial that many researchers consider them necessary to preserve and improve the urban ecosystem and create a recreational space for cities.
The present study is an information modeling research. Also, and in terms of purpose, it is practical and developmental research that seeks to measure spatial justice in the distribution and location of urban parks in order to achieve spatial equality and spatial distribution of parks in urban environments. Moreover, this research is mixed in nature. In terms of data collection method, this research is based on library methods to review resources and select 50 points for field observations to collect location information and extract the necessary parameters to create a database based on reference land information. This research will be based on the modeling analysis method and using GIS analysis functions. Analysis of input data, including qualitative and quantitative information, will be performed using the standard pair coding and weighting method.
Results and discussion
 In this research, three techniques of distribution coefficient, Gini coefficient, and Moran coefficient have been used to evaluate and measure integrated spatial justice. In the distribution coefficient, first, the amount of access to services of each city block should be calculated, then it should be compared with the population rate of the blocks. The results of this coefficient show the amount of spatial justice in the blocks and neighborhoods of the city. This coefficient is one of the methods to evaluate the balance of distribution of different parameters in different parts of the city. Moran's coefficient estimates the amount of aggregation by measuring spatial correlation. To measure the spatial justice of parks (Ai), the following indicators were combined:

A) The amount of access of residents of urban units to services (Wi), B) The distance of blocks from services (Dij), C) The efficiency of each service (Gj), and D) The population of the blocks (Pi).

The findings of this study show that parks that have high park efficiency, the final branches of spatial justice of parks are also high, with the difference in areas where ِMetropolitan and Regional parks are adjacent to neighborhood parks. The final index of spatial justice improves and expands the parks relative to their efficiency.
Regarding the final index of spatial justice, it can be said that regional and local parks, scattered or isolated, do not have the necessary ability to create spatial justice in the neighborhoods of District 1 of Tehran. Instead, they should be used in the form of several regional parks or a set of parks in a balanced way at the neighborhood level. Studies show that in addition to district and regional parks, which are often well-known parks, by creating regional and local parks, their final index of spatial justice can be improved. In areas where there are district parks but the final index of spatial justice is not significant, the establishment and creation of regional and district parks can increase the final index of spatial justice of those parks.
In order to achieve the purpose of this research, the patches indicate the measurement of spatial justice in ​​District 1 of Tehran, where the colored spots indicate the level of ​​the area. In response to the main question of the research, which was "How can distributive justice be used to measure the extent to which citizens enjoy the services of urban parks?", it can be said that the smaller parks in the level of neighborhood that have a spatial distribution close to each other, the better and more appropriate the spatial justice of the parks in that part of the area for citizens and residents (e.g. Evin, Velenjak, and Araj neighborhoods). The existence of local and regional parks in District 1 of Tehran and the dispersion and great distance from each other do not create a balanced justice in the region and neighborhoods, and leads to the concentration of the spatial justice index at one point. This means that if there is no other park in a neighborhood other than a regional park, or the existing park does not have sufficient efficiency or traction, that park will be a regional and destructive factor in the neighborhood's spatial justice (such as Golabdereh, Niavaran).
In response to the sub-question, which was “Do the inequalities in residents' access to urban parks have a significant spatial pattern among the neighborhoods of District 1 of Tehran?”, it can be argued that according to the Moran diagram in this area, it is clear that the inequalities among residents are not intentional and with prior planning, but everything that has occurred is a function of probability and random variables and what has happened to the inequality of the distribution of parks in District 1 is completely coincidental.
There is no funding support.
Authors’ Contribution
All of the authors approved thecontent of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work.
Conflict of Interest
Authors declared no conflict of interest.
We are grateful to all the scientific consultants of this paper.


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