Document Type : Research Paper
Department of Urban Planning, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
A B S T R A C T
The urban landscape is the surface of contact between a man and the phenomenon of the city, and therefore a significant part of the knowledge and environmental emotions of the citizens is formed under its influence. One of the things that has a significant impact on the sustainability of the urban landscape is culture. In addition to the components of the public arena and the cultural body, urban culture emphasizes the component of performance (social and cultural interactions and the relationship between the individual and the space) and the component of meaning (the prevailing atmosphere in the sense of the dominant values and concepts hidden in the cultural space of the city). Therefore, this research aims to measure the relationship and influence of cultural indicators on the urban landscape of Urmia. The current research is of applied type and its research method is descriptive-analytical. The statistical population cited in this research includes experts who were selected with the guidance of professors and the scope of the research topic and includes more than 35 people, all of them available in the field of research. The statistical population of citizens based on the population and housing census of 1395 of Urmia city, which is equivalent to 750,805 people, which is calculated by Cochran's method, is 384 people, which is distributed according to the population of all 5 regions. Then the resulting data were analyzed through SPSS software. The results showed that cultural indicators have different effects on Urmia's urban landscape. Using the multivariate regression method and according to the weighted average of each of the cultural hands; In general, it can be said that regions 4, 1, 5, 2 and 3 have the most significant impact on the urban landscape of Urmia with the numerical values of "2.86 - 2.73 - 2.47 - 2.32 and 2.29". Have had. In general, it can be acknowledged that cultural, historical, economic and religious indicators have had the most significant impact on the urban landscape of Urmia
The city of Urmia, despite having a historical background, the location of the city garden, rich natural context, and diversity of ethnicities and religions, due to the lack of appropriate rules and patterns, creating irregular buildings and adequate supervision, incompatibility of buildings with the geography and customs of society; it has departed from its originality and non-native architectures such as Roman architecture have been formed it. Sometimes, a view unrelated to the culture and climate of this region is accepted by the citizens, which leads to confusion in the urban landscape; these materials are several causes of visual disturbance and confusion of the urban landscape in the city of Urmia. Therefore, it is essential to measure the relationship between cultural indices and components of the urban landscape of Urmia. The purpose of this study is to investigate and assess the relationship between the effective cultural indices on the urban landscape of Urmia. Therefore, this study seeks to answer the following question:
-What is the position of the five regions of Urmia city based on the components of the urban landscape and the extent to which cultural indices are realized?
The study is a type of applied researches and the approach to the research is descriptive-analytical. The research method has been done based on library studies and collection of relevant thematic sources concerning books, scientific research articles, dissertations, and citations of world-renowned scientific sites in two dimensions including "cultural components and indicators" and "urban landscape components and carriers" as theoretical foundations and extraction of theoretical framework. Also, in this research, library studies, documents and urban upstream plans, urban documented maps and satellite images, zoning of Urmia city area, comparative survey of zones have been used to analyze the correlation of variables
in each of urban landscape zones. In addition, "inferential tests" using SPSS software were exerted to analyze the data. The statistical population based on the population and housing census of 2016 in the city of Urmia, is equal to 750805 people, which has been calculated by Cochran's method 384 people and has been distributed according to the population of each region (5 regions).
Results and discussion
The results showed that in the field of urban culture, the component of the "historical body" in region 4 has affected the urban landscape more than other ones due to the vastness of the historical texture and the number of historical buildings. Regions 2, 5, 1, and 3 are in the next categories. Also, in terms of the "traditions and historical background" component, region 4 is in the first rank and regions 2, 5, 1, and 3 are in the next ranks. In general, it has been very influential in the historical culture of Region 4. In terms of literary and artistic culture, the component of "literary-artistic places" in region 4 due to the number and size of cultural centers and also the number of libraries has a higher impact on the urban landscape of Urmia than other ones. In this regard, regions 3, 2, 1, and 5 are in the next categories. Regions 4 and 5 are more influential than other ones in terms of the "people and literature-art" component. In terms of economic culture, the component of "production capital" in regions 4 and 5 due to the abundance of the net and gross production and domestic investment than other ones have a higher impact on the urban landscape of Urmia. In the "economic interactions" component, regions 1 and 2 have more impact on the city landscape due to foreign investment and the amount of foreign exchange, and finally, in the "civil" component, regions 1, 2, 3, 5, and 4 have been more successful, respectively. In terms of political culture and diplomacy, in the "national" component of regions 4 and 1, due to security and transparency in implementation and monitoring, they have been more successful and have shown their impact on the urban landscape of Urmia. Also, in the "international" component, region 2 has performed better and more successfully due to wider overseas transactions and bilateral urban diplomacy between cities and some surrounding (neighbouring) countries, and its impact on the urban landscape of Urmia is more evident than other regions. In the dimension of religious culture and the subset of "buildings and places", regions 4 and 1, respectively, due to the number, size, and quality of religious buildings and the place of religious ceremonies have shown their impact on the urban landscape of Urmia.
The purpose of this study is to investigate and assess the relationship between the effective cultural indices on the urban landscape of Urmia. In this regard, the present study has tried to examine all these dimensions and indicators simultaneously. The results of this study showed that each cultural indicator has a different impact on the urban landscape of Urmia. This shows a different quality in each area of Urmia. Therefore, according to the analysis and the average weight of each cultural indicator; it can be said that regions 4, 1, 5, 2, and 3, respectively, with a numerical value of "2.86, 2.73, 2.47, 2.32, and 2.29 had the greatest impact on the urban landscape of Urmia. Also from the point of view of urban experts and according to the evaluation and average weight of each component; cultural indices related to regions 4, 5, 1, 3, and 2 with a numerical value of 0.862, 0.813, 0.722, 0.603, and 0.535”, respectively, had the greatest impact on the urban landscape of Urmia.
There is no funding support.
All of the authors approved thecontent of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work.
Conflict of Interest
Authors declared no conflict of interest.
We are grateful to all the scientific consultants of this paper.