Document Type : Research Paper
Department of Geography and Rural Planning, Mohaghegh Ardabil University, Ardabil, Iran
Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran
A B S T R A C T
The development of urbanization and the excessive increase in migration to the urban areas of Iran have made the severity of environmental issues more severe and acute. On the other hand, the growth and expansion of cities have added to the country's problems and have turned them into a focus of environmental issues. In the meantime, the low level of ecological citizenship behaviours among citizens has influenced the aggravation of environmental issues. Therefore, investigating the influencing factors on the ecological citizenship behaviour of residents can help to make better and more effective decisions to reduce the environmental problems of big cities. Based on this point of view, the present research was also conducted to investigate and analyze the effect of place attachment, trust and mobility on the environmental citizenship behaviour of residents in Ardabil City. The present study is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of method. Questionnaires on place attachment, trust, mobility and environmental citizenship behaviour were used to collect information. The statistical population of this research is all the residents of Ardabil city, and the necessary sample size is 384 residents who were selected by the available sampling method using Cochran's formula. Also, the validity and reliability of the research model and data analysis were done with the structural equation modelling method in LISREL software. According to the positive coefficients obtained from the structural model of the research as well as the T value for the research relationships based on the data of this model, which were more than 1.96, the variables of trust (B=0.42 and T=68.5), mobility (B=0.0 17 and T=47.2) and attachment (B=0.21 and T=99.2) have a positive and significant effect on environmental citizenship behaviours. Increasing trust, mobility and attachment of residents increase their participation in ecological citizenship behaviours and helps to better implement environmental programs
The low level of environmental citizenship behaviors among citizens has exacerbated the environmental challenges of cities. Recent research shows that residents of some Iranian cities do not actively participate in environmentally friendly behaviours. Ardabil city faces special environmental problems and low participation of residents in environmentally friendly behaviours. High-rate urban development has created special environmental consequences for cities such as Ardabil, forcing city managers to adopt appropriate environmental policies to reduce the negative effects of population growth. On the other hand, due to the fact that environmental challenges are increasing day by day, environmental protection requires appropriate environmental behaviour. Iranian cities also face several challenges, which necessitate a review of urban management policy and attention to the management of residents' environmental behaviours, especially, in a city such as Ardabil, which has experienced a short period of extensive urban development. Accordingly, examining the factors affecting the environmental citizenship behaviour of the residents of this city can help planners and policymakers to make better and more effective decisions. Based on this view, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of place attachment, trust, and mobility on environmental citizenship behaviour of Ardabil residents.
The present study is part of applied and descriptive-analytical researches in terms of purpose and method, respectively. Also, a questionnaire was used to collect information. The statistical population of this study was all residents of Ardabil in 2020. Questionnaires of place attachment, trust, mobility, and environmental citizenship behaviour were used to measure the research variables. Indices of research questionnaires were obtained from related studies and research backgrounds and then localized based on research conditions and the city under study. Also, the validity and reliability of the research model and data analysis were performed by structural equation modeling in LISREL software.
Results and discussion
The fit model showed that the value of the path coefficient between trust and citizenship behaviour is equal to 0.42. Since the value of t obtained for this coefficient is equal to 5.68, due to being higher than 1.96, it shows that the obtained coefficient is significant at the 95 level of confidence. Therefore, the relationship is confirmed and it can be said that trust has a positive and significant effect on environmental citizenship behaviour in the study area. Also, considering that the value of the path coefficient between mobility and citizenship behaviour is equal to 0.17. Since the value of t obtained for this coefficient is equal to 2.47, due to being higher than 1.96, it shows that the obtained coefficient is significant at the 95 level of confidence. Therefore, the relationship is confirmed and it can be said that mobility has a positive and significant effect on environmental citizenship behaviour in the study area. And considering that the value of the path coefficient between place attachment and environmental citizenship behaviour is equal to 0.21. Since the value of t obtained for this coefficient is equal to 2.99, due to being higher than 1.96, it shows that the obtained coefficient is significant at the 95 level of confidence. Therefore, the relationship is confirmed and it can be said that place attachment has a positive and significant effect on environmental citizenship behaviour in the study area.
Findings showed that citizens who have more confidence in the decisions and plans of city officials on environmental issues, exhibit more environmental citizenship behaviour. Consistent with this finding, it can be claimed that city managers can increase the citizens' awareness of the importance and place of the environment in urban programs and policies, while increasing their trust, encouraging them to environmental citizenship behaviours. The findings also showed that the mobility of Ardabil residents, while helping to evaluate the results of environmental policies of local organizations, provides them with more empirical knowledge and information resources. And citizens with high mobility through their visits to different cities, while gaining more knowledge of how the environmental policies of local organizations are positively affected, show a greater desire to engage in urban environmental behaviours. In fact, the change in lifestyle as well as the increase in the possibility of movement and mobility among citizens, has caused the level of their evaluation of the environmental policies of their place of residence to increase in proportion to the places visited. Accordingly, increased competition among cities for environmental approaches and policies will be expected. Also, the research findings showed that in Ardabil, with the increase of citizens 'level of attachment, the citizens' environmental citizenship behaviours increase. Based on this, it can be said that in cities whose residents have a higher rate of place attachment, more environmental citizenship behaviours are performed, and strengthening the place attachment of citizens leads to individual and collective behaviours that are environmentally friendly. Accordingly, policies and programs that increase residents 'attachment to their place of residence will reciprocally increase residents' participation in environmentally friendly behaviours.
There is no funding support.
All of the authors approved thecontent of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work.
Conflict of Interest
Authors declared no conflict of interest.
We are grateful to all the scientific consultants of this paper.