Document Type : Research Paper
Department of Human Geography, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
A B S T R A C T
The process of city development strategy (CDS) was proposed as a content-procedural theory and as a new approach in urban planning by the cities coalition organization to reduce poverty, sustainable development, and promoting participation, and create urban governance. In the urban management system of developing countries, including Iran, several challenges are observed, because the main approach in urban management and planning relies on a comprehensive plan, which is a result of traditional planning that emphasizes development, patterns, and structure. Therefore, adopting strategic structural approaches in the form of a city development strategy seems to be effective to overcome the challenges. The purpose of this research is to analyze and identify the main drivers of city development strategyprograms to achieve the goals of such programs. In this regard, the method of future research has been used in the form of a mix-and-match analysis. This research is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of nature. The statistical population of this research is the Delphi group, which was selected from a total of 30 people. Opinion polling in connection with the identification of indicators and determination of key drivers was done in person and also through the capacity of virtual space. The indicators affecting the city's development strategy were investigated in four dimensions economic, environmental-physical, institutional-political, and social-cultural development. The results of the research showed that urban competitiveness, urban branding, government effectiveness, access to public services, and strategic planning will have the greatest impact on the process of city development strategy, which should be considered by urban planners and managers.
The world's cities have faced economic, social, and environmental challenges in the last four decades, such as rapid population growth, social and spatial changes, climate change, and energy consumption. These factors have significantly affected the urban areas of developing countries. Therefore, cities worldwide must cope with the effects of globalization and decentralization of responsibilities and fast. Population growth, changes in economic and institutional structures, civil society, and the form and scale of environmental and conflict-related challenges have significantly impacted urbanization and caused urban growth and socio-spatial dynamics in urban areas. Cities play a critical role in the formation of social and economic nature at the global level. Undoubtedly, the discussion of sustainable development will only be meaningful with paying attention to cities and urbanization. Also, cities are considered the main factor causing instability in the world, and urban sustainability and global sustainability are both single concepts.
Today, urban management has evolved. Cities are managed for the welfare and comfort of the citizens. Urban management plays an important role in the success of urban development plans and programs. Cities are considered important tourist destinations due to their natural, historical and cultural attractions. Urban tourism development has positive and negative economic, social, cultural, and environmental effects. As a result, create a balance in this field so that the positive effects are more than the negative effects; it is necessary to take strong management policies. This issue is especially important in connection with sustainable development.
The city development strategy focuses first on the development of the strategy and then on the implementation and sustainability of the initiatives by integrating performance and maintenance issues into the whole process. In this highly unstable global environment, the city development strategyis a process and tool to help local governments and their development partners in creating resilience and the foundation for economic growth, more cohesive communities and improving the living environment. The goals of the city development strategy include achieving improved urban management and governance, achieving economic growth and increasing employment, and reducing poverty and its continuation. Also, its principles are livable, competitive, and bankable. Moreover, it includes governance (governed).
In the meantime, the cities of developing countries face many challenges as it can be seen that the main approach in urban management and planning in Iran relies on the comprehensive plan, which is derived from traditional planning (classic view) and emphasizes the development of patterns and bodies. The preparation and implementation of comprehensive city plans in Iran's urban planning system is aimed at creating an environment for the balanced physical growth of the city. However, in practice, it consumes a lot of money and energy and mostly does not have efficient results and the desired goals are not achieved. With this topic, the research is looking for the future study of the factors affecting the city development strategy (CDS) in the urban planning of Iran.
In this research, an attempt was made to address the purpose of the research through the study of sources in the literature, interviews with experts in the field of future studies, and questionnaires to seek opinions from experts. This research is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive and analytical in terms of nature. The statistical population of this research is the Delphi group, which was selected from a total of 30 people, and interviews were conducted in person and through the capacity of virtual space to examine the future and influential and driving factors in the development of urban strategy. In general, there are many variables in the interpretive structural modeling technique, which are briefly mentioned below.
Results and discussion
In this part, the factors affecting the city development strategy are analyzed. In this regard, the Mic Mac method of future research has been used. The most important reason for using future research methods is to determine what is necessary for a correct decision, but this information currently needs to be made available. With the help of this information, assumptions can be specified to be tested and changed if necessary. Analyzing mutual or cross effects is a widely used method in future research. In the real world, most events and issues are related to other events and issues in some way, and analyzing these mutual relationships is essential.
The city development strategyplan is a strategic approach that has been welcomed in many countries, especially developing countries, because this plan can significantly help these regions in terms of content. Outstanding goals are foreseen in this plan, such as achieving improved urban management and governance, achieving economic growth and increasing employment, and reducing poverty and its continuation. It is also helping to create good city management and governance, which bring good elements of city governance, such as accountability, transparency, and the principle of competition. In the global experiences of the urban development strategy, we have also seen that CDS has good efficiency and effectiveness in the countries of the world, especially the third world, and has successful experiences in many cities of the world, and this is an expression of the successful implementation of the city development strategyin the cities of the world, and it is recommended to use. From this project, the participation of the past implementers of this project in different geographies of the planet should be emphasized and a database of such experiences should be created for the sharing and use of communities.