Document Type : Research Paper
PhD Student in Urban Planning, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
Assistant Professor of Urban Planning, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
The historical texture of cities, which forms its identity, is the primary centre and the beating heart of the city. The life and death of cities can be recognized by taking into account the characteristics of their urban spaces. Urban spaces are remembered as the centre in which the art of people's living together, crystallization of social life, the scene of people's everyday life, and place of simultaneity of activities are manifested. Urban regeneration as a recent approach in the field of urban restoration and protection, leads to the creation of a new urban space while the main spatial features (physical and functional) are maintained.
After reviewing the research background, it was found out that no research has been carried out on the quality of urban spaces using the principles of urban sustainable regeneration in Iran, and the existing research has all been in a large scale (city and urban contexts) with no micro-scale research (urban spaces), which also necessitates conducting this research. In this regard, the purpose of this study is to recognize the principles of urban sustainable regeneration in the quality of urban spaces from the viewpoints of the experts in Tabriz. Tabriz metropolis, with its rich historical background, and a great heritage of urban spaces such as squares, mini-squares, sidewalks and several passages in its historical texture, in recent years, has faced with the rapid growth of urbanization and immethodical constructions and destruction of historical urban spaces, and the lack of the necessary structural and managerial plan to rehabilitate and recreate urban spaces, and as a result, these spaces have suffered physical or functional deterioration, or both. Due to the nature of the research, this study seeks to find answers to four questions: 1- What are the principles and criteria for urban sustainable regeneration so as to improve the quality of urban spaces of Tabriz? 2- What is the impact of sustainable urban regeneration on the quality of Tabriz urban spaces? 3- What is the value of correlation coefficient of the dimensions of sustainable regeneration in the quality of urban spaces in Tabriz? 4- Is there a significant relationship between the indicators of urban sustainable regeneration and the quality of urban spaces of Tabriz?
Considering the research methodology, philosophy, research purpose, and finally research technique, this is a "qualitative", "interpretive", "applied" and "field-library-documentary" research, respectively, which deals with developing a conceptual model associated with the principles of urban sustainable regeneration in the quality of urban spaces and explains the issue through two tools of interviews and documents. The statistical population of the study consisted of urban experts, and based on Cochran's sample size formula, its sample size was estimated 450 people. Accordingly, while studying the concepts and literature related to the purpose of research, some components and indicators were extracted and then the indicators were assessed using the questionnaire tool in the form of Delphi method. Finally, in order to test the hypotheses and the conceptual framework, the obtained data from the questionnaires were analysed by LISREL and SPSS software.
Results and discussion
According to the obtained data from the confirmation model and measurement of effective factors of sustainability component, the indicator of physical and visual proportions and the use of native local characters of the landscape design had the most effect with a path coefficient of (0.91), and the indicator of increasing the useful use of urban spaces had the least effect with a path coefficient of (0.73); in the conceptual-perceptual dimension, the indicator of sense of spatial identity has the most effect (0.87) and the indicator of pleasantness and attractiveness of place has the least effect (0.76); in the functional-activity dimension, the permeability and accessibility indicator had the most effect with a path coefficient of (0.96) and the sidewalk and pedestrian ease indicator had the least effect with a path coefficient of (0.70); in the social and cultural dimension, the indicator of strengthening architectural heritage (historical core) had the most effect (0.89) and activities to attract the crowd and promote social identity had the least effect with a path coefficient of (0.73); in the environmental dimension, the indicator of attention to environmental problems and limited resources of land and energy had the most effect with a path coefficient of (0.97) and the indicator of safe and clean environment and environmental health had the least effect with a path coefficient of (0.76); and in the economic dimension, the indicator of economic prosperity and increased tourism and cultural tourism had the most effect with a path coefficient (0.88), and the indicator of labour force diversity in terms of skills and social class had the least effect with a path coefficient of (0.73), which are regeneration indicators of quality of Tabriz's urban spaces from the viewpoints of the experts. In addition, the results of confirmatory factor analysis showed that the correlation coefficient of socio-cultural dimensions with functional-activity dimension with a correlation coefficient (1.18) of sustainable regeneration in the quality of urban spaces is more than other dimensions. Based on the confirmatory factor analysis model and the coefficient and the impact level equal to (0.76) as well as the amount of RMSEA 0.072, the relationship of sustainable regeneration in the quality of urban spaces was confirmed in the study areas.
Based on the research findings, there is direct and causal relationship between sustainable regeneration and quality in urban spaces, such that an increase in the amount of sustainable regeneration and its indicators in the study areas will lead to an increase in the quality of these urban spaces. As it was mentioned in the framework of urban sustainable regeneration, paying attention to concepts such as placing importance on the role of all interacting groups, is considered as an important and basic principle in the regeneration of urban spaces. This is important since in most cases, the private sector, government and municipalities are taken into account more when intervening in the target areas, play a key role in this regard, something which often underestimates the role of people. Empowering residents, gaining their trust, increasing belonging to the target areas and in general the capacity building of the residents, are the main points in the realization of the urban regeneration, which the framework of urban sustainable regeneration takes into account, whereas the concept of capacity building has been formed and implemented in our country quite popularly and spontaneously.