Investigation of the effect of Covid_19 pandemic on the social functions of third places (Case study: Cafes of Tabriz).

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

2 Islamic Azad University, ,Tabriz,,,Iran



Cafes as public places and clear examples of the third-place affect the components of social sustainability. They have the characteristics to achieve the social goals of sustainable development. By having the characteristics of the neutral ground, leveler (a leveling place), the conversation is the main activity, accessibility and accommodation, regulars, low profile, the mood is playful and home away from home, they achieve the social goals of sustainable development. In addition to social stability, cafes as part of the third place at the individual level by creating a stable relationship between people in the community and at the collective level by creating civic pride, sense of belonging and sense of belonging to the city and society in crises by creating empathy and unity in It creates voluntary contributions among people in the community to resolve the crisis and raise the level of resilience. When a crisis disrupts the functioning of third spaces, the potential for public assistance is reduced. The outbreak of Covid-19 is an example of this type of crisis, which in addition to health problems, has created many economic, political and social problems for communities. Considering the importance of social sustainability and the role of third places in cities, study the consequences of the impact of this crisis on the performance of cafes as a tangible and popular example of third places on social stability to recognize the damage caused by them the future seems necessary. Considering the importance of social sustainability and the role of third places in cities, it seems necessary to study the consequences of the impact of the Covid-19 crisis on the social stability created by cafes as a tangible and popular example of third places. The purpose of this study is to identify potential injuries to eliminate injuries in the Pandemic Covid-19 and possible future crises. Assuming the impact of third places on social sustainability, the present study seeks to answer these questions: What effect does Pandemic Quid 19 have on the components of social sustainability associated with cafes in Tabriz as an example of third places?
The research is descriptive-analytical. The necessary information was collected based on written documents and a questionnaire. To analyze the information obtained from the questionnaire, the method of structural equation modeling based on covariance was used. In this method, each factor studied has its weight and the direct and indirect effects of each variable can be calculated.The questionnaires were designed in Likert scale based on theoretical foundations and library documents and the model was designed and analyzed using Amos software. According to Cochran's formula and Morgan's table, 384 samples were needed to conduct the present study. Considering the possibility of some questionnaires not being usable, 400 questionnaires were distributed in person and online. Finally, 392 desirable and usable questionnaires were available.
Results and Discussion
The components identified to investigate the impact of the Covid 19 crisis on the social sustainability created by the existence of cafes as examples of third places include: the weakening of the economy due to Covid-19, fear of disease, diminished social interaction, diminished empowerment, and diminished accessibility. The present study has 5 hidden variables. Based on the theoretical foundations of the research, first the initial model was designed and then the model fit was examined by confirmatory factor analysis. The results of five indices minimum discrepancy function by degrees of freedom dividend, root mean square error of approximation, Comparative fit index, Tucker-lewis index and Incremental fit index showed that the model fit indices are appropriate. In the next step, structural reliability and validity were reviewed and confirmed. In order to reduce the error for calculations, Professor James Gosling macro Excel was used. Finally, the SEM model was designed according to the CFA model and hypothesis testing was performed. According to the results of testing the hypotheses, the two variables of accessibility with a standard coefficient of 0.056 and social interactions with a standard coefficient of 0.160 with 95% confidence and the variable fear of disease with a standard coefficient of 0.468 with 99% confidence directly and The two variables of sense of place and economy, by influencing other variables of intelligence, indirectly play a role in reducing the social stability formed in cafes due to the Covid-19 pandemic.
The pathology of the Covid 19 pandemic examined the social sustainability formed by cafes in five components: economy, accessibility, social interaction, fear of disease, and sense of place. All components studied in this study have a direct and indirect impact on social sustainability. The ignificant percentage of direct relationship between economy and potential is less than the quorum; Therefore, it can be concluded that although the economic damage is one of the important complications of the Covid 19 pandemic for communities; But the direct impact of this component on the cafes of Tabriz is not significant. The variable of economics is positively correlated with the variable of social interactions with 95% confidence. Therefore, it indirectly affects the social stability formed by cafes. Among the components with a significant direct impact on social stability formed by cafes in the city of Tabriz, fear of disease, reduced social interactions, and accessibility have the greatest impact on reducing social stability formed by cafes in Tabriz, respectively. The results showed that the sensation created in the cafes did not disappear with the Covid-19 crisis; therefore, it seems that with the end of the crisis, people will want to go to cafes again. Considering the impact of social interactions on social stability and the decrease in interactions due to the decrease in attendance in the Covid-19 era, it seems that creating an effective connection between cyberspace and cafes is an example of a third-place by creating the potential to relive memories of being in Cafes and creating a suitable platform for the formation of social interactions in a virtual way can be effective in covering the limitations of being in cafes as an example of the third place and prevent the reduction of social stability.