Explaining the Model of Sustainability of Coastal Cities with the Approach of Sports Revenue Generation (Case Study: Beach Volleyball in Bandar-e Torkman)

Document Type : Article extracted From phd dissertation


1 Department of Physical Education, Aliabad Katoul Branch, Islamic Azad University, Aliabad Katoul, Iran.

2 Department of Physical Education, Azadshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Azadshahr, Iran.



Iran's urban population and the phenomenon of urbanization have grown significantly in recent years. The reason for this increase is the migration of people from villages to cities. This wide range of city residents needs sufficient and stable sources of income for livelihood as well as the implementation of urban management and development programs. The absence or weakness of sustainable sources of income in cities, especially in small cities, has caused the financial inefficiency of urban management and made their residents' daily lives difficult. Therefore, it seems necessary to adopt new models and financial policies based on the potential and facilities of cities for residents and managers of cities to have access to sustainable incomes. One way to stabilize cities' income is to hold periodic sports events. Because these types of events can cause the presence of sports tourists in the host cities and, as a result, provide sustainable income to urban organizations as well as local people. Revenue generation is one of the most important components of the sports industry, which plays a special role in increasing countries' economic growth. Considering Iran's reliance on a single-product economy and escape from economic pressures and crises, the need to pay attention to this part of the country's sports industry, which can flourish and develop, is needed more than ever. According to the geographical situation of Bandar-e Torkman city, some sports, including beach volleyball, have a good position in this city. The research aimed to provide a model of sustainability of coastal cities with the approach of sports revenue generation with an emphasis on beach volleyball in Bandar-e Torkman.

The current research was applied in terms of purpose and survey in terms of data collection method and qualitatively based on the research approach. For this purpose, a qualitative method using interviews was used to build the model. The statistical population of the current research included experts who are knowledgeable about income generation and sports economics and had the necessary experience and knowledge regarding the research subject. In order to identify these people, the purposeful sampling method was used. The tool used in this research was a semi-structured interview, which continued until theoretical saturation was reached. A total of 14 interviews were conducted. The stages of data analysis were performed through open coding, axial coding (Strauss and Corbin paradigm model), and selective coding (choosing a central category as the main and determining the relationship between each central category), providing a logical paradigm or visual image concluded from the developing theory.

Results and discussion
At the end of the interview process, 72 items were identified in the form of six general components of causal conditions, contextual conditions, intervening conditions, main phenomenon, strategies, and consequences. The results of this research showed that the causal conditions affecting the stability of coastal cities with the approach of sports revenue generation include:
• Existing financial problems;
• The potential of recreational sports;
• The potential of beach volleyball;
• Past experiences.
This research also revealed that the contextual conditions include technical infrastructure, legal issues, cultural issues, organizational support, and motivation. Also, the current research results indicated that both macro and micro factors of intervening conditions are effective on the sustainability of coastal cities with the approach of sports revenue generation. The present research also determined that according to the presented model, the sustainability of coastal cities with the approach of sports monetization with emphasis on the development of beach volleyball in Bandar-e Torkman will have financial and organizational consequences.

In this way, it is clear that the sustainability of coastal cities with the approach of generating income from sports, emphasizing the development of beach volleyball in Bandar-e Torkman, while creating sustainable resources, will solve many of the financial and organizational problems of coastal cities. On the other hand, the capacity of beach volleyball to attract audiences due to the attractiveness of this sport can increase the probability of success of this plan. According to the presented model, it is suggested to implement the following strategies for the sustainability of coastal cities with the approach of sports monetization with emphasis on the development of beach volleyball in Bandar-e Torkman:
The formation of specialized committees regarding the creation of income sources in Bandar-e Torkman, the recruitment and cultivation of expert and knowledgeable human resources in the field of finance and economy in the management system of Bandar-e Torkman, inflation control policies in recreational sports by using effective financial tools, outsourcing marketing activities in beach volleyball to domestic and foreign expert organizations and groups, facilitating the presence of the private sector in the development of beach volleyball in Bandar-e Torkman, creating and providing incentive packages to leading organizations in order to achieve income stability in Bandar-e Torkman. , upgrading the technical and electronic infrastructures of Bandar-e Torkman in the direction of coherent financial management, adapting the structure of Bandar-e Torkman to the procedures related to the stability of income sources, creating inter-organizational memorandums between the Ministry of Sports and Youth and the Ministry of Cultural Heritage, Tourism and Handicrafts regarding the development of beach volleyball and media coverage of beach volleyball competitions and events.