Document Type : Article extracted From phd dissertation
PhD Student in Urban Planning, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
Professor Urban Design of Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
Assistant Professor of Urban Planning, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
Smart city implementation has faced many challenges despite having benefits for urban developments. Cities have failed to implement smart city strategies. Assessing the influencing factors in realizing a smart city is essential in clarifying the challenges facing these cities. This study aims to investigate the affecting factors of smart city realization to define the feasibility factors and variables of the smart city.
Using new technologies such as ICT in cities and citizen’s life has opened opportunities and challenges for officials and related institutions in the urban area. Since cities are a cultural and social reflection of their inhabitants, changes in the way people live also lead to the transformation of cities. Urban planning and management seek to provide smarter solutions for improving the quality of life through new technologies, as a process that responds to the problems of cities. Increasing the rate of urbanization globally and the resulting environmental crises such as destruction of natural resources, environmental pollutants, climate change, reduction of fossil resources, and mass production of waste have posed significant challenges to human life. Therefore, sustainable development as a form of development that ensures the sustainable life of cities and urban communities provides a solution to improve current urbanization problems. The increasing use of information and communication technologies in Peoples' life, on the one hand, and the need to expand sustainable development, on the other hand, have led to the formation of a new model of urbanization in order to overcome these issues. The smart city uses information and communication technologies to achieve sustainable development and improve the quality of life. The smart city is expanding rapidly as a typical pattern in developed countries due to the many opportunities it presents to cities. Currently, there is a wide competition between cities to become smart. However, our country has not been able to take an effective step in order to be smart. The realization of smart cities in Iran faces many challenges. In order to identify these challenges, this study tries to examine the factors affecting the feasibility of smart cities based on their components and explain the contribution of each of these factors affecting the smart city.
This study assumes the significance of the six components of a smart city (economy, environment, people, living, governance, mobility) on the feasibility of a smart city in Mashhad. Therefore, this study utilizes a mixed research method and questionnaire analysis method. For this purpose, first, the components and variables affecting the feasibility of the smart city are explained. The structural equation modeling method, Smart PLS 3 software, has been used for data analysis.
Results and discussion
At the 95% confidence level, the effective components in Mashhad smart city have been prioritized: Smart governance 92%, smart living 82%, smart economy 79%, smart mobility 69%, smart environment 59%, and smart people 57%.
Comparatively, with the feasibility of smart cities in Europe, it can be concluded that the component of a smart environment that has been achieved in most European cities in Mashhad is facing serious challenges. The most significant challenges are:
-Assessing the sustainability of urban plans and programs;
-Integrating resource management;
-Measuring energy efficiency;
-Transparency of energy consumption.
The component of smart people, which has a low percentage of feasibility in European cities, faces fewer challenges than other smart city components in Mashhad, which can be considered one of the main capacities in developing smart city strategies.
this article aims to review the feasibility of a smart city in Mashhad and its challenges by reviewing the literature, smart city projects, and questionnaire from managers and employees in the field of urban management. The relationship and impact of each of these challenges on realizing the smart city introduce the effective components and variables in implementing smart city strategies in Mashhad. According to the studies, it can be concluded that each component of a smart city includes different variables. The nature of these variables is focused on the context and complex conditions of each city. Therefore, it is expected that in examining the feasibility of smart cities, a diverse set of variables related to the specific issues and problems of each city will be considered:
-The most critical challenge for the feasibility of the smart city depends on providing a proper definition of the components of the smart city and its structuring to develop innovative ecosystems;
-The method of examining the feasibility of a smart city based on the issues and challenges of each city can be used by urban management institutions, policymakers, and planners;
-Identifying the challenges of achieving smart cities can provide an opportunity for smart cities in Iran to define smart projects more realistically and efficiently.