Document Type : Research Paper
Faculty member of Internal Security Research Institute, National Defense University, Tehran, Iran
PhD in Geography and Urban Planning, National Defense University, Tehran, Iran
M.A student of urban design, Alborz campus, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Urban security concerns have come to forefront since the late 1980s as the adverse effects of globalization, such as unplanned urbanization, irregular migration, poverty and unfair distribution of wealth and income, organized crime, soaring population, insufficient physical infrastructure, and social unrest have undermined daily lives of ordinary people at urban areas. Urban security approach has been developed as a response to those challenges. It seems that the existence of structures and content of the value systems in any society is essential because they are able to form insights and attitudes. In this regards, the type of insights and attitudes can play a high role in defining and conceptualizing security as well as explaining the criteria for measuring urban security. On this basis, in the secular school value propositions and principles have a limited role in urban security, but in the Islam school, where all political and social phenomena are influenced by value components, values and normative aspects play an important role. In the transcendent school of Islam, urban security has a special place and it is measured by value criteria. Islam as a religion and complete way of life has provided a divine guidance for the safety, protection, peace and stability of individuals and society which if properly followed, the society and its individual members become safe and well protected. Urban security is a theme which is accompanied with man’s life and is considered as necessary needs of citizens. Hope to having better life, progress and development in all areas including cultural, economic progress and reaching technology and industrial achievements is only feasible through security. On other hand, when the security coefficient of a country is at a high level, the people residing in such country will lead a peaceful life and will continue their collective attempts to build and develop their country.
Researchers have used documentary studies based on analysis of the content of more than 35 sources by word cloud software in the process of explaining the criteria of urban security in the Islam school. Also, three methods including Rank Order Centroid (ROC), Rank Sum (RS) and Rank Reciprocal (RR) have been used for weighting to urban security criteria. Due to the consistency of urban security criteria, the method that had the lowest standard deviation in weight was selected. Based on this, the rank sum method with the least standard deviation has been selected.
Results and discussion
Analysis of the content of more than 35 sources in the field of security and urban security with an Islamic approach through word cloud software shows that eight main criteria are important in assessment of urban security.
Faith, spirituality ، values, and religious beliefs;
Justice, equality and non-discrimination;
Material welfare (sustainable income and employment) and far from poverty, unemployment and expensiveness;
Spiritual and physical health;
Safe from threats and fears of violence and crime;
Safe from immorality such as lying, administrative corruption, distrust, lawlessness and disloyalty;
Safe from all natural and man-made hazards;
Having a sustainable physical space.
In this regard, weighting the urban security criteria based on the rank sum method shows that faith, spirituality, values, and religious beliefs with 22 percent in the first rank; justice, equality and non-discrimination with 19.44 percent in the second rank; and material welfare (sustainable income and employment) and far from poverty, unemployment and expensiveness are in the third rank with 16.67 percent.
The recent research tried to focus on urban security and discuss it from an Islam perspective. The research indicates that Quran has paid much more attention to the issue of urban security. Urban security is a main priority in security policies of Islam, which aims to make human settlements safer for development, revolves around the causes of insecurity in urban spaces. However, security requires to be handled in terms of inequality. In view of Islam school, unequal distribution of security at urban areas should be examined based on a comprehensive conceptual framework for analysis. To realize the Islamic utopia in the Quran mentions to eight main axes, including Islamic principles, global principles, divine attributes and actions, principles based on nature and natural elements, principles of social relations, principles based on dos and don’ts and finally, principles based on urban and architectural elements. In Islam perspective, the ideal city has two principles of monotheism and justice and in its pillars, there are three spaces including, intellectual space, practical space and physical space. So paying attention only to the physical space without emphasizing the other spaces for realization of urban security is insufficient. Thus in the transcendent school of Islam, both immaterial and material criteria are necessary for measuring of urban security.