The Explanation of Place Attachment in Urban Green Spaces Green spaces of Rafsanjan

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Urban Planning, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran

2 Department of Urban Planning, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran



Extended Abstract
Space, is an inseparable phenomenon of human life, it connects leaving worlds in terms of spatial and environmentally and it creates the Core meaning, destination and human behaviour. Space is the main part of the inhabitant's identity the space is not only a shelter for human activities but also its a phenomenon that human gives it meaning and get used to it by communication, in the way that he knows himself by it. One of the main issues that contemporary urban planning in Iran and especially Rafsanjan City have been faced with is just paying attention to pre-conceived plans and designs without noticing to city's spatial soul and character. On the other hand, this issue is completely changing to qualities and contextualism but in our country by considering that this urban designs have not dissected by knowing components of mentally and behavioural of people with their environment yet, so it is necessary that this kind of project getting done especially for contexts that are in the direct relation with people's social life. Rafsanjan's park are not only an important and social space for shaping social connections and social parts for inhabitants but also they are only space with this efficiency, so any design activity in this area should happen with special attention to important and meaningful compliment and environmental psychology. Therefore, the necessity of existing projects like the current project is clear for urban planning vision. So this project is about answering the question: Do place activities and components have an effect on place attachment? 
This research's goal is practical and its method is descriptive- analytical. Collecting data for project was from two ways that are documentary library and field library and the main analysis is based on information that was collected by the questionnaire. The data collection tool was a researcher- made questionnaire, that was reviewed several times by Professors and experts for reliability evaluating.And for validity evaluation of questionnaire combine methods and Cronbach's alpha were used, that its result is in the reflected and indicates validity data part are accepted by collecting data tool. The statistical society of this research are citizens of Rafsanjan that are about 161909 people. Sample size was estimated 384 people by Cochran's formula and for being more sure 400 questionnaires were collected. In order to analyzing data and information structural equivalence modeling based on the metal of minimal details in software environment Smart-PLS get used. 
Results and discussion
According to the result the average of component of the link between human and place is 2.80 and in comparison with theoretical average (3) is low and due to the meaningful level although is Lower than 0.01 so we can generalize the results of statistical sample to statistical society because we are more than 99% sure about the result, So the gained average for this indicator is lower than average, so we can say that the situation of this indicator is lower than average limit.  Identity indicator has 2.50 average and although phantasm indicator has 2.77 average. 
Because this average has gained from meaningful level, average difference is meaningful too.   According to the low level of the gained average from the average situation of these indicators this is not satisfying in our study area.  The gained average for safe and correct perception of space is 3.23 so that the gained average is a higher than the theoretical average that is 3 and this average difference has gained from meaningful level and we can generalize this gained result of statistical sample to statistical society because we are sure about the gained result more than 99%. Related to the main gain average for place attachment variable that is 2.84, this number is lower than theoretical average so this study area is not satisfying situation from place attachment vision. Also according to the obtained level of significant which is less than the value of the desired level of significant that is 0.05 so we can generalize the gained result to statistical society. Studying the affection of place activities on place attachment that the value of T is 13.762 is greater than 1.96 and it be considered that the place activities on place attachment has a significant effect.  Also the obtained path is equal to (β = 0.598), and obtained path coefficient is positive, this effect is directed.  Therefore, it can be said that place activities for place attachment has significant and positive affect and from all components the location capability has the greatest effect of place attachment.
Place attachment is coming from activities and transaction between human and place, and also, between humans in a special place and it related to mutual emotions affect, knowledge, believes and behaviour with special place.
The gained result of searching the study area in the place attachment and its indicators shows that among all the indicators for place attachment just the correct and safe perception data space indicator from Space is in the satisfying level and the other indicators of place attachments aren't in the satisfying level.
The gained data from this research have a significant and positive impact on place attachment. According to the gained number which was 0/598 we can consider that this impact is in the average level.
On the other side, it can be said that place activities can predict 35.7% of place attachment variance.  Studying the effect of components was shown that all the five components that are related to place activities have a significant and positive effect on place attachment.  Among all the identified components the capability of place component with path coefficient had the greatest effect after that visual beauty component with 0.268 path coefficient had the greatest effect.


  1. احمدی، حسن و مهرجو، مهرداد (1398) بررسی رابطه بین دل‌بستگی مکانی وفاداری رفتاری با سرزندگی و امنیت در فضای شهری (مطالعه موردی: میدان شهرداری شهر رشت)، فصلنامه معماری و شهرسازی پایدار، دوره 7، شماره 2، صص.83-69.
  2. ایزدی، ملیحه و گرجی، مهشید (1398) تحلیلی بر وضعیت فضای سبز با رویکرد توسعه پایدار شهری مطالعه موردی: مناطق شهر اصفهان. فصلنامه شهر پایدار، دوره 2، شماره 1، صص.27-15.
  3. آروین، محمود (1398) ارزیابی اثرات دل‌بستگی مکانی بر میزان تاب‌آوری اجتماعی در شهرها (مطالعه موردی: منطقه 12 کلان‌شهر تهران)، فصلنامه پژوهش و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دوره 10، شماره 38، صص. 88-77.
  4. جهانگیری، آرمان؛ پاکزاد، جهانشاه؛ عندلیب، علیرضا (1396) فرآیند تبیین پدیدار نگاری ابعاد مفهوم دل‌بستگی مکانی به روش استخراج معانی تصویری خودنگار، نشریه مدیریت شهری، شماره 47، صص. 300-277.
  5. چرخچیان، مریم (1388) تبیین مدل دل‌بستگی به مکان» و بررسی عناصر و ابعاد مختلف آن، نشریه هنرهای زیبا- معماری و شهرسازی، دوره 1، شماره 38، صص. 48-30.
  6. حبیبیان، بهار و حاتمی‌نژاد، حسین (1399) تبیین اثرپذیری سرزندگی محله‌های شهری از ابعاد دل‌بستگی مکانی نمونه موردمطالعه: شهر اهواز، فصلنامه برنامه‌ریزی و آمایش فضا، دوره 24، شماره 1، صص. 182-151.
  7. داوری، علی و رضازاده، آرش (۱۳۹۲) مدل‌سازی معادلات ساختاری با نرم‌افزار PLS، چاپ اول، تهران: انتشارات جهاد دانشگاهی.
  8. دویران، اسماعیل و احمدی، حسین (1399) تولید فضاهای پیاده راهی و پایداری هویت و حس مکانی شهروندان مطالعه موردی: پیاده راه خیابان امام شهر زنجان، فصلنامه شهر پایدار، دوره 3، شماره 4، صص.42-29.
  9. رحیمی، لیلا؛ رفیعیان، مجتبی؛ باقری، محمد (1396) ارزیابی تأثیر مقیاس مکانی بر دل‌بستگی ساکنین به مکان در محلات مرکزی (شهر تبریز)، فصلنامه نامه معماری و شهرسازی، دوره 9، شماره 18، صص. 58-43.
  10. زمانی، بهادر و هنرور، محسن (1395) ارزیابی عوامل مؤثر بر دل‌بستگی مکانی در محلات شهری با استفاده از فرآیند تحلیل شبکه‌ای، فصلنامه مطالعات جامعه‌شناسی شهری، دوره 6، شماره 20، صص. 156-131.
  11. ضیا بخش، ندا (1399) بررسی مقایسه‌ای حس تعلق به مکان در محلات گلشن و قنات کوثر منطقه 4 شهرداری تهران، فصلنامه معماری و شهرسازی پایدار، دوره 3، شماره 4، صص. 14-1.
  12. لک، آزاده (1393) تجربه بازآفرینی حس دل‌بستگی به مکان در محلات آسیب‌دیده از زلزله با بهره‌گیری از روش نظریه‌ای زمینه، نشریه نامه معماری و شهرسازی، شماره 15، صص. 176-159.
  13. Ahmadi, Hasan. & Mehrjoo, Mehrdad. (2019) Investigating the Relationship between Spatial Attachment and Behavioral Loyalty with Vitality and Security in Urban Space (Case Study: Rasht Municipality Square), Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Urbanism, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp.69- 83. [In Persian].
  14. Altman, I. & Low, S. M. (2012) Place attachment Springer Science & Business Media, Vol. 12, pp.23-45.
  15. Amundsen, H. (2015) Place attachment as a driver of adaptation in coastal communities in Northern Norway, Local Environment, Vol.20, No.3, pp. 257-276.
  16. Arvin, Mahmoud. (2019) Evaluation of the effects of spatial attachment on social resilience in cities (Case study: District 12 of Tehran metropolis), Journal of Urban Research and Planning, Vol. 10, No. 38, pp.77-88. [In Persian].
  17. Boley, B. B. & Strzelecka, M. & Yeager, E. P. & Ribeiro, M. A. & Aleshinloye, K. D. & Woosnam, K. M. & Mimbs, B. P. (2021) Measuring Place Attachment with The Abbreviated Place Attachment Scale (APAS), Journal of Environmental Psychology, Vol.10, pp.50-70.
  18. Brown, B. & Perkins, D. D. & Brown, G. (2003) Place attachment in a revitalizing neighborhood: Individual and block levels of analysis, Journal of environmental psychology, Vol.23, No.3, pp. 259-271.
  19. Burley, D. & Jenkins, P. & Laska, S. & Davis, T. (2007) Place attachment and environmental change in coastal Louisiana, Organization & Environment, Vol.20, No.3, pp. 347-366.
  20. Casey, M. C. (2009) Place attachment: Conceptual and empirical questions, Journal of environmental psychology, Vol.21, No.3, pp. 273-281.
  21. Charkhchian, Maryam. (2009) Explaining the model of "attachment to place" and examining its various elements and dimensions, Journal of Fine Arts - Architecture and Urban Planning, Vol. 1, No. 38, pp.30-48. [In Persian].
  22. Davari, Ali. & Rezazadeh, Arash. (2013) Structural Equation Modeling with PLS Software, First Edition, Tehran: Jihad Daneshgahi Publications. [In Persian].
  23. Doiran, Ismail. & Ahmadi, Hossein. (2021) Production of sidewalks and stability of identity and spatial sense of citizens Case study: Sidewalk of Imam Shahr Street, Zanjan, Journal of Sustainable City, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 29-42. [In Persian].
  24. Efroymson, D. & Thi Kieu Thanh Ha, T. & Thu Ha, Ph. (2009) Public Spaces: How They Humanize Cities. edition1, Publisher Dhaka.
  25. Habibian, Bahar. & Hatami Nejad, Hossein. (2021) Explaining the impact of vitality of urban neighborhoods from the dimensions of spatial attachment of the studied sample: Ahvaz, Journal of Spatial Planning and Planning, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp.151-182. [In Persian].
  26. Hidalgo, M. C. & Hernandez, B. (2001) Place attachment: Conceptual and empirical questions, Journal of environmental psychology, Vol.21, No.3, pp. 173-281.
  27. Izadi, Maliheh. & Gorji, Mahshid. (2019) An analysis of the state of green space with the approach of sustainable urban development Case study: Isfahan city areas, Journal of Sustainable City, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp.27-15. [In Persian].
  28. Jahangiri, Arman.& Pakzad, Jahanshah.& Andalib, Alireza. (2017) The process of explaining the phenomenology of the dimensions of the concept of spatial attachment by extracting the visual meanings of self-portrait, Journal of Urban Management, No. 47, pp. 277-300. [In Persian].
  29. Lak, Azadeh. (2014) The experience of recreating the sense of attachment to the place in earthquake-affected areas using the theoretical method of the field, Journal of Architecture and Urban Planning, No. 15, p. 176-159. [In Persian].
  30. Lo, Y. L. & Lee, M. Y. K. & Cheung, L. T. O. & Ma, A. T. H. (2021) Place attachment and political orientation: The case of localists in Hong Kong, Asian Journal of Social Science, Vol.13, pp.55-70.
  31. Moore, T. (2021) Planning for place: Place attachment and the founding of rural community land trusts, Journal of Rural Studies, Vol.83, pp. 21-29.
  32. Rahimi, Leila. & Rafieian, Mojtaba. & Bagheri, Mohammad. (2017) Evaluating the effect of spatial scale on residents' attachment to place in central neighborhoods (Tabriz city), Journal of Architecture and Urban Planning, Vol. 9, No. 18, pp. 43-58. [In Persian].
  33. Ryan, A. J. & Walker, R, L. (2015) Place attachment and landscape preservation in rural New England: A Maine case study, Landscape and urban planning, Vol.86, No.2, pp. 141-152.
  34. Scannell, L. & Gifford, R. (2017) Place attachment enhances psychological need satisfaction, Environment and Behavior, Vol.49, No.4, pp. 359-389.
  35. Tonge, J.& Ryan, M. M.& Moore, S. A. & Beckley, L. E. (2015) The effect of place attachment on pro-environment behavioral intentions of visitors to coastal natural area tourist destinations, Journal of Travel Research, Vol.54, No.6, pp. 730-743.
  36. Trentelman, C. K. (2009) Place attachment and community attachment: A primer grounded in the lived experience of a community sociologist, Society and natural resources, Vol.22, No.3, pp. 191-210.
  37. Zamani, Bahador. & Honarvar, Mohsen. (2016) Evaluation of Factors Affecting Spatial Attachment in Urban Neighborhoods Using Network Analysis Process, Journal of Urban Sociological Studies, Vol. 6, No. 20, pp.156-131. [In Persian].
  38. Zia Bakhsh, Neda. (2021) A Comparative Study of the Sense of Belonging to a Place in Golshan and Kowsar Aqueducts in District 4 of Tehran Municipality, Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Urban Planning, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp.1-14. [In Persian].