Document Type : Research Paper
PhD Student in Geography and Urban Planning, Islamic Azad University, Tehran Research Sciences Branch, Tehran, Iran
Assistant Professor, Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Associate Professor, Department of Geography, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Although urbanization is one of the most important indicators of welfare and social and economic development, its rapid growth reduces the per capita availability of urban services and social and economic facilities, and thus, its consequences are manifested in the form of reduced quality of life in various urban areas. These conditions and the decrease in the level of quality can be seen in the demographic characteristics, per capita land uses, and service facilities in different urban areas. One of the areas of unsustainable urban development, especially in developing countries, is the disregard for neighbourhoods and areas that need special solutions to improve their empowerment. So, in this study, an attempt has been made to assess the indicators of urban development in the areas of Ilam as the capital of Ilam province. The city of Ilam is considered the capital of the province and the first city of this province. Due to the political centrality of the province and the uncontrolled migration of the subordinate cities, this city has been faced with widespread and rapid urbanization and development since the last decade. However, some areas of the city still lack the most basic services, and unfair distribution of urban development indicators has occurred in the city. The rapid growth of Ilam's urban population and the inability of urban management to meet the needs of the population is the starting point for the emergence of various inequalities in the city. Continuation of this will prevent the provision of basic facilities and spaces of life and vital urban services and achieve sustainable development in these areas, so it is necessary to first, determine the situation of areas of the city in terms of urban development indicators in order to prioritize the results. In this regard, the present study seeks to answer the following questions:
-What are the factors and indicators of urban development in the areas of Ilam city?
-What is the current situation of the areas of Ilam city in terms of development indicators?
The present study is part of applied and descriptive-analytical researches in terms of purpose and methodology, respectively. Data collection was done by two dominant methods of theoretical and field foundations with a questionnaire in the form of a five-point Likert scale and the development indicators were analyzed in the areas of Ilam. In this study, to evaluate and ensure the validity of the questionnaire, the validity of the questionnaire was exerted and the opinions of geography and urban planning experts and university professors were used. The reliability based on SPSS software and Cronbach's alpha is equal to 0.784, which indicates the reliability is suitable. The statistical population of the expert group includes 20 professors and graduate students in the fields of geography and urban planning of Ilam universities. To analyze the indicators, SWARA and BORDA and COPELAND methods have been used. Thus, the SWARA method has been used for the importance and measurement of research indicators and for spatial analysis and prioritization of indicators among the areas of Ilam city, BORDA and COPELAND methods have been exerted.
Results and discussion
According to experts, physical, economic, social, security, and biological indicators have been identified as the most important ones, respectively. The results of the analysis show that the neighbourhoods around the city, especially those located in the east, south, and southwest are in a more undesirable situation than other ones. In contrast, the central areas of the city in the northern vicinity are in a good position in terms of socio-economic indicators. The analysis of the spatial pattern of the development distribution in the city, in addition to confirming the concentration of developed neighbourhoods in the center and middle areas, and the accumulation of undeveloped neighbourhoods in the southern and western parts of the city, indicates that the non-randomness of this situation and the existence of a clustered spatial pattern. This means that the socio-economic distance of neighbourhoods has emerged in the form of space in the city and indicates the fragmentation of the city.
According to the studies and analyzes, the urban areas of Ilam are divided into four groups in terms of prioritizing the degree of development which including sustainable, semi-sustainable, unstable and completely unstable. The results of the analysis show that the suburbs of the city, especially the areas located in the east, south, and southwest are in a more undesirable situation than other areas. In contrast, the central areas of the city in the northern vicinity are in a good position in terms of socio-economic indicators. Spatial pattern analysis of the development distribution in the city, in addition to confirming the concentration of developed areas in the center and middle areas of the city and the accumulation of undeveloped areas in the southern and western parts of the city, indicates that the non-randomness of this situation and the existence of a clustered spatial pattern. This means that the socio-economic distance of the neighborhoods has emerged in the form of space in the city and indicates the fragmentation of the city.