Document Type : Article extracted From phd dissertation
PhD Student, of Urban Planning, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Assistant Professor of Urban Planning, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Associate Professor of Urban Planning, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Recently, studies show that in Iran, measures have been taken to achieve knowledge-based development, but due to lack of understanding of the concept of knowledge assets and its resources, the nature of knowledge development and its pattern is not clear. There is no written plan to move towards the urban development of knowledge-based people, and in the meantime, Tehran metropolis is facing major challenges in achieving the development of knowledge-based people, in fact due to the lack of formal institutions specific action plans, knowledge-based urban development with the efficiency of a specific legal agenda, has never had an executive guarantee. On the other hand, considering the effects of the knowledge period on the spatial structure of Tehran and taking advantage of the opportunities of the knowledge period and knowledge economy in the development process of Tehran and coordination with the global trend, the need to address how to establish knowledge-based urban development in Tehran city justifies. In view of the above, the main problem of research is neglect and insufficient attention to the main driving engine such as knowledge as value-creating capital and attention to knowledge-based urban development as an alternative to contemporary urban development through capacity measurement to create knowledge, innovation and creativity in order to achieve the city of knowledge. According to what has been said, the main purpose of the research is to present a conceptual model of explaining the knowledge-based urban development in Tehran, based on the interpretive structural modeling approach.
This research is applied-developmental in terms of purpose and in terms of method is in the category of descriptive-analytical research. Data collection is based on documentary studies and also in the form of content analysis and specialized interviews with experts (Delphi). The data collection tool is a questionnaire that creates the ISM method for purposeful sampling. The statistical population includes professors and PhD students in urban planning of the University of Science and Technology, Research Sciences and North Tehran, of which a sample of 20 is considered. To assess the validity of the extracted indices, the Delphi technique was used. For this purpose, a questionnaire with 18 proportional indices was designed and the panel members were asked to vote on the appropriateness of the appropriate components with Tehran city based on the Likert scale. The results were analyzed by SPSS software which based on this, finally 11 components have an average higher than 3.
Results and discussion
After identifying the main and effective components on the knowledge-based urban development based on content analysis, 11 components have been selected based on the Delphi technique appropriate to Tehran metropolis. The modeling process includes steps as following:
1-Formation of structural self-interaction matrix, in this step, experts were asked to examine the relationship between the components in pairs.
2-Formation of access matrix, the initial access matrix is obtained by converting the self-interactive structural matrix into a dual value matrix (zero-one).
3-Leveling and modeling the factors affecting the urban development of Tehran metropolitan scholars, in the ISM graph, the interrelationships and influence between the components and the relationship of the components of different levels are visible.
This model is designed in four levels and three layers. The first layer (fourth level) is related to the basic factors of knowledge-based urban development in Tehran metropolis, which includes human capital, place of knowledge and human knowledge. The second layer includes the structural features of knowledge-based urban development in Tehran metropolis, which includes the components of the third and second levels. The third level includes the components of knowledge-based economy, knowledge management and quality of physical environment and urban activities. The second level includes technology and communication, knowledge interaction and exchange, infrastructure, cultural capital and social capital, and finally the third layer is the goal of knowledge-based urban development, which includes the first level component of achieving a sustainable and quality place to live.
This research provides a new insight and knowledge of the nature of knowledge-based urban development in Tehran metropolis, which identifies the priorities for action in the decision-making space. Factors affecting the future of knowledge-based urban development in Tehran metropolis are classified into four levels. In the ISM graph, the interrelationships and influence between the components and the relationship of the components of different levels are visible, which leads to a better understanding of the decision-making space. The results of the article show that in terms of penetration power, the two components of human capital and human knowledge with the influence of 10 and 9, respectively, have the highest influence and impact, and are considered as stimulus or motivator of knowledge-based urban development in Tehran. In contrast, the component of environmental sustainability with a power level of 1 has the least influence on achieving knowledge-based urban development in Tehran. Also, the two components of social capital and knowledge interaction and exchange with a rate of 9 have the highest dependence on other components. In other words, many factors are involved in creating and promoting these components, and they can be less likely to change and influence the achievement of knowledge-based urban development in Tehran metropolis. On the other hand, a review of the results obtained from other researchers also confirms the accuracy and correctness of the research’s results and the following can be summarized in the form of suggestions:
1: Knowledge-based culture, 2: Knowledge market 3: Knowledge-Based management, 4: Knowledge-Based activities, 5: Development of innovation centers and other necessary institutions, 6: Entrepreneurial university, 7: Continuous innovation, 8: Consider startups and role of science and technology parks in the upstream documents. 9: Realize entrepreneurial governance.