Analyzing of the Institutional Capacity of Local Management for Good Governance in Urban Land of Iran

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor of Geography and Urban planning, Tarbiat Modares University, tehran, iran

2 Master of Geography and Urban Planning, Tarbiat Modares, Tehran, Iran.

3 Associate Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran



Extended Abstract
This fact that centralized urban land management in most developing countries cause local institutions have no place in decision-making and suffer from the absence of the required institutional capacity is also there in Iran as a developing country with a petroleum-based economy. Although Iran has made an effort to move from centralization policy towards decentralization policy in land management over the past few decades, its urban land management system still suffers from a lack of proper vision, high centralization, and non-participatory decision-making. As a matter of fact, the top-down centralized planning system in Iran requires that land and housing policies be managed by central governments, and local and regional governments (municipalities) are just obligated to implement plans designed in the national level. To that aim, a governmental institution called the "National Land and Housing Organization" became the main responsibil in urban land management on behalf of the central government for implementing some of the objectives for the last forty years and councils and municipalities are the only executer and obedient of decisions made in the national level: decisions that are made for the whole country without taking into account the spatial, geographical, cultural and social differences. Apart from preparing political and governmental contexts such as decentralization and delegation of authorities to local levels, councils and municipalities, as local institutions responsible for land management in Iranian cities, should be able to enhance their institutional weaknesses by creating and developing some capacity. Now, the question which the present study is going to answer it is that what kind of capacities should be created or developed by local institutions to improve their abilities for applying good governance in land management.
According to the studied indicators and the nature of the subject, the present study is applicable and the method is descriptive-analytic. in this research, two main methods of interview and questionnaire were used to collect the desired data. After analysis of literature review, firstly the accepted indicators in the field of good governance of urban land and then the most important areas of institutional weakness in councils and municipalities were identified as research capacity needs. In the second stage, to find the accuracy of the indicators and measure the relationship and appropriateness of these indicators with the proposed capacities, as well as localization and compatibility of the proposed capacities with the Iranian management context, a semi-structured interview form was designed and was given to ten experts with a scientific background in urban planning, urban development and land use. in the next step, Delphi systematic technique was used to extract the opinions of experts about whether there is a relationship between these capacities and the realization of good governance in Iran's urban land management. Finally, a structured questionnaire was designed based on 7 main indicators and 32 proposed capacities and was sent to 30 experts to rate the capacities using the Likert scale, in other words, to quantify them from the value of (1-10).  Finally, using Spearman model, the correlation between dependent and independent variables of the research was confirmed and using linear regression model, the direct effects of independent variables on dependent in general were calculated and based on path analysis model, the direct and indirect impact some capacities on the realization of the good urban land governance in Iran were measured.
Results and discussion
According to the results of Spearman test, the proposed capacities in the area of localism have the highest correlation and relationship with the realization of the indicators of good urban governance by local institutions. After determining the correlation between the independent and dependent variables in the Spearman test, the regression model was used which its results shows only the proposed capacities in the areas of "taxation and registration", "localism" and "optimal land management" have a real and significant relationship with the realization of good indicators of urban land governance in Iran. In other words, the proposed capacities in these three sectors will have the greatest impact on the realization of indicators of good urban land governance in Iran. The results of the path analysis model also showed that if capacities proposed in the area of security and property system as a complementary element add to capacities of "the taxation and registration, localism and optimal land management areas", the impact of the capacities of these three areas on the realization of good urban land governance is increasing increases.
The results of the present study indicate that there is a significant relationship between the proposed capacities in the areas of institutional weakness and the realization of indicators of good urban land governance in Iran. It shows the interrelationship between the two variables that the more seriously the proposed capacities are created or developed at the local management levels, the greater the possibility of achieving good governance indicators in the urban land sector, As a result, if decentralization would be happened in Iran, councils and municipalities, as local institutions, can acquire the necessary capacity to accept authority in local urban land management and guarantee the optimal management of urban land as a valuable resource. in general, this study believes that in order to creating and developing institutional capacities at the local management level and eliminate the weaknesses in the field of taxation and registration, the capacity of " create or strengthen geographic databases to implement or complete the cadastral system ", for eliminating the areas of localism, the capacity of " storing, registering and updating urban land information in land databases on the local level and improving the quality of registration by preparing cadastral maps" and for eliminating the weakness of the area of ​​optimal land management the capacity of " Enhancing the storage and registry of urban land information on databases at the local level for providing the needs of today and the future" is the first step. Finally, this study strongly believes that the establishment of good governance in urban land management requires technological infrastructure in the local institution and this infrastructure provides the basis for decentralization. Establishing good governance in in fact, decentralization will hold local management accountable to national management, this process will create transparency, and the establishment of these two elements will surely ensure the integration that is the first principle of optimal land management.


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