The Impact of Urban Poverty on Access to Urban Service and Social Polarization Case Study: Shahriar City

Document Type : Research Article

Authors

1 Assistant Professor of Geoghraphy & Urban Planning, Sayyed Jamaleddin Asadabadi University, Asadabad, Iran

2 M.A in Urban Management, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

10.22034/jsc.2020.215311.1181

Abstract

Extended Abstract
Introduction
Urbanization of poverty has occurred in today's world and the poor fate is tied to cities. Urban poverty is a complex and multifaceted concept. In the sense that it is not limited solely to economic or income indicators, it also includes social-cultural and physical indicators. The immigrant poor cannot afford to pay for housing costs in affluent neighborhoods, so they settle in marginal, worn-out and inefficient textures. As a result, poverty zones have appeared in the form of marginalization and informal settlements. In Iran, more than 20 million people live in urban slums, so that 11 million of them have been settled in informal settlements and 9 million in worn-out textures. Meanwhile, Shahriyar city is known as one of the Tehran province emigrant centers. Accordingly, present paper purpose is to evaluate poverty various indicators from the citizen's perspective of Shahriar city. Also, it has been measuring access to services and amenities among the Shahriyar city neighborhoods by using of the neighbor nearest model.
 
Methodology
The current research is applied and its method is descriptive-analytical. Statistical society is consisting of Shahriar city neighborhoods residents (about 248675 people). The statistical sample is obtained through the Cochran formula, which is equivalent to 322 people. The statistical sample is distributed and completed by using of the Likert scale between neighborhoods’ residents. In this study, with a preliminary study of 50 samples from the questionnaires, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the its reliability was 0.73. Thus questionnaire has a satisfactory reliability. In addition, the neighbor nearest model has been used in order to evaluate the Shahriyar city neighborhoods, in terms of access to facilities and services (access to emergency services, recreation and sports centers, administrative centers, urban facilities and educational centers). To test the hypotheses, regression variance and Spearman have been used.
 
Results and discussion
The research findings show that some of physical characteristics have a positive effect on the semantic level of more than 95%. These indicators are included of housing ownership rate, population density, person in the room; residential housing without gas, electricity, drinking water, toilets and bathrooms; the number of households in a residential unit, the number of people in a residential unit and the type of building skeleton, the lifespan of the building, the area of ​​the residential unit. A number of economic and social indicators have gained a positive impact on the significance level of more than 95%. These indicators are included of aging, the number of people with disabilities, fertility rates, infant mortality rates, illiteracy rates, higher education rates.  People have stated that in the event of an income increase, 12% consider education as a priority, %40 has been taken into account their environment physical condition improvement, about %11 have placed car purchases in the first place, approximately %27 consider switching to other neighborhoods and %11 have considered other criteria for their cost priorities. The results have confirmed that the accumulation of poverty in worn-out textures and informal settlements and unbalanced distribution of facilities and services in the city of Shahriyar. According to the results of the neighbor nearest mean model, Z score for access to emergency services, office centers, urban facilities and educational centers is equal to -4.76, -6.5, -4.83, and -7.3. Therefore, spatial distribution of these services in the Shahriyar city is cluster at %95 level. Meanwhile, Z score for recreation and sports centers access is -0.28, so the spatial distribution of these services in the Shahriyar city level have distributed randomly.
 
Conclusions
Poverty has been concentrated in the worn-out textures and informal settlements of Shahriar city. The poor neighborhoods of Shahriar city include of North and South Boradabad, Mohammadiyeh, Kershad, Farhang, Taleghani, Kohnese, Sink", while its worn-out texture adapts to the neighborhoods of North and South Boradabad, Kohnz, Kareed and Farhang. The results of research have confirmed that the urban services clustering and the social and spatial exclusion emergence. This situation has led to a kind of spatial mismatch in Shahriyar city. In fact, the social capital of the Shahriyar city impoverished areas has been decayed due to physical, natural, financial, social, symbolic, human and managerial causes. Accordingly, the main suggestions of this research are as follow:
v  Prioritizing the public transportation expansion, especially in the city marginal sectors;
v  Implementing the green belt to control the city disorganized development and use of infill spaces such as abandoned, worn-out and empty land;
v  The development of basic services such as libraries, clinics, green spaces, schools and cultural facilities in poor areas or slum;
v  Residents economic empowerment through local loan and savings fund creation, job skills training, supporting small and medium-sized manufacturing workshops and exploiting home-based businesses capacity (especially women);
v  Determination of residential unit's documents status and increase the sense of belonging to the place among the residents
v  Creating centers for crisis management, especially against earthquakes and local forces training.

Keywords


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